Autonomous Weapon Systems Under Internatİonal Law

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Autonomous Weapon Systems Under Internatİonal Law

Berkant AKKUS


CONTENTS

Background ...............................................................................................1

Key Definitional Issues..............................................................................3

Research Question ....................................................................................6

Rationale ...................................................................................................7

Methodology .............................................................................................7

Chapter 1 - Autonomous Weapons.........................................................9

Introduction................................................................................................9

Definitions, Distinctions or Features of Autonomous Weapon Systems...9

Unmanned Weapon Systems (UWS).......................................................10

Autonomous Weapon Systems (AWS).................................................... 11

Meaningful Human Control (MHC)........................................................12

Critical Functions.....................................................................................13

Humans in the Loop, On the Loop, Out of the Loop...............................15

The Rules on the Conduct of Hostilities..................................................19

Substantive Obligations...........................................................................19

Standard of Precautions...........................................................................21

Bearers of Obligations.............................................................................23

Conclusion ...............................................................................................24

Chapter 2 - The Compliance of Autonomous Systems with ..............29

International Humanitarian Law..............................................................29

Introduction..............................................................................................29

Can AWS Be Deployed in Compliance with the Principle of ................32

Distinction?..............................................................................................32

Persons.....................................................................................................33

Active Combatants...................................................................................33

The General Position ...............................................................................33

The Legal Position on Uniforms and Adversarial Examples...................36

Civilians and Other Protected Persons ....................................................38

Civilians Not Protected from Direct Attack.............................................40

Persons Hors de Combat..........................................................................44

Objects.....................................................................................................46

xii Contents

‘Nature’ and ‘Location’............................................................................47

‘Purpose’ and ‘Use’: The Problem of ‘Dual-Use’ Objects ......................50

The ‘Definite Military Advantage in the Circumstances Ruling at the ..55

Time’........................................................................................................55

Civilian Objects and Specifically Protected Objects...............................56

Cultural Property .....................................................................................57

Objects Indispensable for Civilian Survival............................................59

Infrastructure That May Release Dangerous Forces................................59

Medical Capabilities................................................................................61

Enhancing Detection by Technical Means...............................................62

Enhancing Confidence in Technical Detection........................................63

Will AWS be Able to Sense Targeting ‘Doubt’?......................................63

Summary .................................................................................................67

Guaranteeing AWS Compliance with LOAC: Using Dynamic Diligence 68

Interaction Between Human and Machine ..............................................69

Periodic Assessment ................................................................................71

Dynamic Operational Limits ...................................................................72

Conclusion ...............................................................................................78

Chapter 3 – Can AWS be Deployed in Compliance with the ............81

Principle of Proportionality and with Adequate .....................................81

Precautions?.............................................................................................81

Introduction..............................................................................................81

Autonomous Attacks................................................................................82

How an Attack is Defined........................................................................86

Acts of Violence ......................................................................................89

Scale.........................................................................................................90

Severity....................................................................................................93

Against the Adversary..............................................................................94

Whether in Offence or in Defence ...........................................................95

Application to Delayed-Action Weapons ................................................96

Mines .......................................................................................................96

Cyberattacks ............................................................................................98

Cyber Hacking, Ruses and Human Accountability ...............................101

Contents xiii

Applying Current Law to AWS .............................................................106

The Evolution of Targeted Killing.........................................................106

Identifying the Attack ............................................................................109

Preparatory Obligations Relate to the Combined Actions of Software and

Humans............................................................................................ 116

Extended Operations.............................................................................. 117

Other Precautions in Extended Operations............................................121

Summary................................................................................................123

Potential Solutions.................................................................................123

Legal Use of AWS .................................................................................127

Conclusion .............................................................................................139

Chapter 4 - Prohibition of Indiscriminate Weapons and

Prohibition of Weapons Causing Unnecessary Suffering,

Superfluous Injury.........................................................................141

Introduction............................................................................................141

Is it Possible to Define an AWS in the Strictest Sense of the Term

‘Weapons’ for the Purposes of Article 36 Review? .........................144

What are the ‘Means of Warfare’ or the ‘Methods of Warfare’? ...........144

Defining Weapon, Means of Warfare and Methods of Warfare.............149

What is a Weapon?.................................................................................149

Implications of Weapons Autonomy for Legal Analysis.......................153

Superfluous Injury and Unnecessary Suffering .....................................155

Content of The Principle........................................................................155

Application to Autonomous Weapon Systems ......................................158

Prohibition of Weapons Which are Indiscriminate in Nature................164

Content of The Principle........................................................................164

Application to Autonomous Weapons Systems.....................................168

Protected Persons and Objects...............................................................172

Conclusion .............................................................................................174

Chapter 5 - Autonomous Weapon Systems and Legal Review of New

Weapons..........................................................................................177

Introduction ...........................................................................................177

The Legal Obligation to Conduct Legal Reviews of New Weapons ....177

Customary Law......................................................................................177

Treaty Law ............................................................................................178

Article 36 Scope of Application ...........................................................180

State Weapon Review Procedures – Article 36......................................185

Australia.................................................................................................187

New Zealand..........................................................................................188

The Netherlands.....................................................................................189

Norway ..................................................................................................190

Sweden...................................................................................................191

Switzerland ............................................................................................192

United Kingdom ....................................................................................192

United States..........................................................................................194

Similarities Between State Review Procedures.....................................195

Suggested State Review Practices ........................................................195

Conclusion .............................................................................................197

Chapter 6 - The Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful

Acts..................................................................................................199

Introduction............................................................................................199

State Responsibility ..............................................................................199

AWS and the Law of State Responsibility.............................................201

Unclear Attribution: Private Military Contractors.................................204

Contracting Phase ..................................................................................205

Recent Developments in the International Legal Framework ...............206

The Montreux Document and the U.N. Draft Convention on Private

Military and Security Contractors...................................................206

Including AWS within the ASR Framework.......................................... 211

AWS Conduct and State Responsibility ................................................ 211

State Organ Operators and Responsibility.............................................212

Preventing Violations as a Due Diligence Obligation...........................213

The Removal of Human Judgement ......................................................217

Classifying AWS as State Agents ..........................................................218

xiv Contents

Can a Stricter Liability Regime Overcome Potential Accountability

Gaps? ...............................................................................................222

Accountability in Domestic Courts .......................................................225

Conclusion .............................................................................................230

Chapter 7 - Individual Responsibility and Autonomous Weapon

Systems ...........................................................................................233

Introduction............................................................................................233

AWS Programmer Liability...................................................................233

Armed Conflict as a Threshold Requirement ........................................235

Principal and Accessorial Liability........................................................237

Ex Ante Aiding and Abetting: International Legal Theory....................239

The Application of the Effective Control Test within the Robotic

Context.............................................................................................241

The Requirement for Mens Rea ............................................................251

Summary of Programmer Responsibility ..............................................253

The Doctrine of Command Responsibility: A Poor Fit to Govern

Artificial Intelligence Systems........................................................254

AWS and the Irrelevance of Command Responsibility.........................262

Manufacturer Responsibilities for AWS................................................268

Manufacturers and International Law....................................................268

Criminal Responsibility of Manufacturer..............................................270

Civil Responsibility of Manufacturer....................................................271

Manufacturer Responsibility for AWS Design ......................................272

The Paradox of a Responsible Arms Maker ..........................................273

Manufacturer Responsibility for AWS Sale and Supply .......................273

Manufacturer Responsibility for AWS Use ...........................................274

Product Liability ....................................................................................278

No-Fault Liability ..................................................................................280

Summary................................................................................................281

Conclusion ............................................................................................282

Conclusions and Recommendations......................................................285

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Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or

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Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, opened for signature 10 April 1972, 1015 UNTS 163 (entered

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Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick

and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea, opened for signature 12 August 1949, 75 UNTS 85 (entered into force 21 October 1950)

Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of

War, opened for signature 12 August 1949, 75 UNTS 287 (entered into

force 21 October 1950)

Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, opened

for signature 12 August 1949, 75 UNTS 135 (entered into force 21 October 1950)

International Convention for Adapting to Maritime Warfare the Principles of

the Geneva Convention of 22 August 1864, signed 29 July 1899, [1901]

ATS 132 (entered into force 4 September 1900)

International Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes, signed 29 July 1899, [1901] ATS 130 (entered into force 4 September 1900)

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(Protocol II), opened for signature 8 June 1977, 1125 UNTS 609 (entered into force 7 December 1979)

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