Constitutional Law in a Nutshell

Yayınevi: Adalet Yayınları
Yazar: Engin SAYGIN
ISBN: 9786257088947
Stok Durumu: Tükendi
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Yazar Engin SAYGIN
Baskı Tarihi 2020/08
Baskı Sayısı 1
Boyut 16x24 cm (Standart Kitap Boyu)
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Constitutional Law in a Nutshell

Engin SAYGIN

2020/08 1. Baskı, 432 Sayfa

ISBN 978-625-708-894-7

This book is the first textbook written in English by a Turkish scholar at an introductory level to provide an up-to-date, thorough, and comprehensive overview of the theoretical principles and main legal concepts of Constitutional Law which forms the system of law in every country.

As an introductory work with special references to Turkish Constitutional Law, this book also provides not only an introduction to the legal system of Turkey but also of the United States of America and of the Russian Federation. I believe that this approach is suited to the growing numbers of foreign students at the faculties of law and the faculties of political sciences in Turkish universities which give greater importance to English textbooks even in law subjects.

“The Consttitution only gives people the right to

pursue happiness.

You have to catch it yourself.”

Benjamin Franklin


TABLE OF CONTENTS


TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... 5

LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................. 13

ABOUT THE AUTHOR ......................................................................................................... 15

ABOUT THE BOOK & ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...................................................................... 17

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK ................................................................................................... 21


CHAPTER 1: CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTIONALISM


INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 27

1. MEANING OF CONSTITUTION..................................................................................... 28

1.1. Definition of Constitutions................................................................................. 28

1.2. Content of Constitutions.................................................................................... 29

1.2.1. Preliminary Chapter (or Preamble) ........................................................ 29

1.2.2. General Principles Chapter..................................................................... 32

1.2.3. Institutions of the State Chapter............................................................ 35

1.2.4. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms Chapter.......................................... 41

1.2.5. Amendment Procedure Chapter............................................................ 45

1.3. Functions of Constitutions................................................................................. 57

1.4. Essentials of Good Constitutions........................................................................ 58

2. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTIONS ......................................................................... 59

2.1. Written and Written Constitutions.................................................................... 61

2.1.1. Merits and Demerits of Written Constitutions....................................... 62

2.1.2. Merits and Demerits of Unwritten Constitutions................................... 63

2.2. Soft and Rigid Constitutions............................................................................... 64

2.2.1. Merits and Demerits of Soft Constitutions............................................. 66

2.2.2. Merits and Demerits of Rigid Constitutions........................................... 67

2.3. Frame and Regular Constitutions....................................................................... 68

3. CONSTITUTIONALISM................................................................................................. 68

3.1. History of Constitutionalism .............................................................................. 69

3.2. Constitutional History of Turkey ........................................................................ 73

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................ 76

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS ............................................................................... 77

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING....................................... 77


6 Table of Contents


CHAPTER 2: CONSTITUENT AND CONSTITUTED POWER


INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................81

1. CONSTITUENT POWER ................................................................................................82

1.1. The term of Constituent .....................................................................................82

1.1.1. Sieyès......................................................................................................83

1.1.2. Schmitt....................................................................................................84

2. CONSTITUTED (AMENDING) POWER...........................................................................85

2.1. The term of Constituent .....................................................................................86

2.1.1. Sieyès......................................................................................................86

2.1.2. Friedrich ..................................................................................................87

3. CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT PROCEDURES ..........................................................88

3.1. Initiative ..............................................................................................................88

3.2. Parliamentary Procedures ..................................................................................90

3.3. Referendums ......................................................................................................91

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS ............................................................................94

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS................................................................................95

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING .......................................95

CHAPTER 3: INTERPRETATION OF CONSTITUTIONS


INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................99

1. METHODS OF INTERPRETATION................................................................................100

1.1. Textualism.........................................................................................................101

1.2. Original Intent and Meaning.............................................................................102

1.3. Judicial Precedent.............................................................................................104

1.4. Pragmatism.......................................................................................................105

1.5. Moral Reasoning...............................................................................................106

1.6. Structuralism.....................................................................................................106

2. METHODS OF REASONING ........................................................................................110

2.1. Syllogism...........................................................................................................110

2.2. Argumentum a Contrario..................................................................................111

2.3. Analogy .............................................................................................................111

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS ..........................................................................114

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS..............................................................................115

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING .....................................115


Table of Contents 7


CHAPTER 4: CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 119

1. AMERICAN MODEL ................................................................................................... 122

2. EUROPEAN MODEL................................................................................................... 125

3. WAYS OF REVIEW ..................................................................................................... 128

3.1. Abstract Review of Law.................................................................................... 129

3.2. Concrete Review of Law................................................................................... 130

3.3. A Priori Review................................................................................................. 131

3.4. A Posteriori Review.......................................................................................... 131

3.5. Constitutional Complaint ................................................................................. 131

4. CONSTITUTIONAL REVIEW IN FRANCE, GERMANY AND THE UK ............................... 134

4.1. France............................................................................................................... 135

4.2. Germany........................................................................................................... 135

4.3. United Kingdom ............................................................................................... 137

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS.......................................................................... 138

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS ............................................................................. 139

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING..................................... 139


CHAPTER 5: THE STATE


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 143

1. THE ELEMENTS OF THE STATE................................................................................... 144

1.1. Territory ........................................................................................................... 146

1.2. Population........................................................................................................ 153

1.3. Sovereignty ...................................................................................................... 153

1.3.1. Internal & External Sovereignty ........................................................... 155

1.3.2. Real & Nominal Sovereignty................................................................. 156

1.3.3. Legal & Political & Popular Sovereignty ............................................... 156

1.3.4. De Jure & De Facto Sovereignty ........................................................... 157

2. THE THEORIES OF THE STATE.................................................................................... 157

2.1. Voluntaristic Theories...................................................................................... 158

2.2. Social Contract Theories................................................................................... 158

2.3. Coercive Theory ............................................................................................... 159

2.4. Environmental Circumscription........................................................................ 161

2.5. Political Evolution............................................................................................. 161

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS.......................................................................... 163

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS ............................................................................. 164

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING..................................... 164


8 Table of Contents


CHAPTER 6: TYPES OF THE STATE


INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................169

1. MONARCHY AND REPUBLICS.....................................................................................169

1.1. Definition of Monarchy.....................................................................................170

1.2. Types of Monarchies.........................................................................................170

1.2.1. Absolute Monarchies............................................................................170

1.2.2. Constitutional Monarchies....................................................................171

1.2.3. Hereditary Monarchies.........................................................................172

1.2.4. Elective Monarchies..............................................................................174

1.3. Definition of Republic .......................................................................................174

1.4. Types of Republics ............................................................................................175

2. UNITARY STATES AND UNIONS OF THE STATE ...........................................................175

2.1. Unitary State.....................................................................................................176

2.2. Unions of the States..........................................................................................177

2.2.1. Personal union ......................................................................................178

2.2.2. Real union .............................................................................................178

2.2.3. Confederation .......................................................................................179

2.2.4. Federalism.............................................................................................180

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS ..........................................................................192

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS..............................................................................193

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING .....................................193

CHAPTER 7: GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEMS


INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................197

1. UNION OF POWERS ...................................................................................................198

1.1. Absolute Monarchy...........................................................................................198

1.2. Dictatorship ......................................................................................................199

1.3. Assembly Government......................................................................................200

2. SEPARATION OF POWERS..........................................................................................201

2.1. Parliamentary System.......................................................................................204

2.1.1. Features of Parliamentary System........................................................205

2.1.2. Merits of Parliamentary System............................................................207

2.1.3. Demerits of Parliamentary System .......................................................208

2.2. Presidential System...........................................................................................209

2.2.1. Features of Presidential System............................................................212

2.2.2. Merits of Presidential System ...............................................................212

2.2.3. Demerits of Presidential System...........................................................214

2.3. Semi-Presidential System .................................................................................215


Table of Contents 9

3. GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEM OF TURKEY...................................................................... 219

3.1. Features of Turkish Presidential System .......................................................... 220

3.1.1. The Role of the President..................................................................... 220

3.1.2. The Election of the President............................................................... 220

3.1.3. The Duties and Powers of the President.............................................. 221

3.1.4. The Criminal Liability of the President ................................................. 223

3.1.5. The Relationship between the President and Parliament.................... 224

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS.......................................................................... 225

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS ............................................................................. 226

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING..................................... 226


CHAPTER 8: LEGISLATURE


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 231

1. THE ROLE OF LEGISLATURE....................................................................................... 233

1.1. Legislature as Agent: Linkage, Representation and Legitimation .................... 233

1.2. Legislature as Principal: Control and Oversight ............................................... 234

1.2.1. Ways of Parliamentary Scrutiny in Turkey ........................................... 235

1.2.2. Parliamentary Checking the Work of Government in the UK .............. 241

1.2.3. Legislature as Legislator: Policy-making vs. Policy-influencing ............ 248

2. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES OF LEGISLATURE ................................................... 248

2.1. Numbers and Type of Chambers...................................................................... 249

2.2. Numbers, Quality and Consistency of Members.............................................. 251

3. LAW MAKING PROCESS ............................................................................................ 253

3.1. Law Making Process in Turkey ......................................................................... 253

3.1.1. Basic Concepts...................................................................................... 253

3.1.2. The Right to Introduce Bills: ................................................................. 254

3.1.3. Deliberations in the Committees ......................................................... 255

3.1.4. Deliberations in the Plenary................................................................. 258

3.1.5. Publication of Laws .............................................................................. 261

3.2. Law Making Process in England ....................................................................... 262

3.2.1. Basic Concepts...................................................................................... 263

3.2.2. The Right to Introduce Bills.................................................................. 265

3.2.3. Law making Process for Public Bills...................................................... 266

3.2.3.1. Pre-Legislative Scrutiny .......................................................... 266

3.2.3.2. Legislative Scrutiny................................................................. 267

3.2.3.3. Post-Legislative Scrutiny ........................................................ 270


10 Table of Contents

3.2.4. Law Making Process for Private Bills.....................................................270

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS ..........................................................................273

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS..............................................................................274

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING .....................................274


CHAPTER 9: DEMOCRACY


INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................279

1. THE CONCEPT OF DEMOCRACY .................................................................................279

2. THE CONCEPT OF DEMOCRACY .................................................................................281

3. TYPES OF DEMOCRACY..............................................................................................283

3.1. Direct Democracy .............................................................................................283

3.2. Indirect (Representative) Democracy ...............................................................285

3.3. Semi-Democracy...............................................................................................287

3.3.1. Initiative ................................................................................................288

3.3.2. Referendum ..........................................................................................292

3.3.3. Recall.....................................................................................................292

3.4. Majoritarian-Pluralist Democracy.....................................................................301

4. ARGUMENTS FOR AND AGAINST DEMOCRACY .........................................................303

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS ..........................................................................307

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS..............................................................................308

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING .....................................308

CHAPTER 10: POLITICAL PARTIES


INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................313

1. THE CONCEPT OF POLITICAL PARTY...........................................................................313

1.1. Definition of Political Party ...............................................................................314

1.2. Functions of Political Parties.............................................................................316

1.2.1. Coordination .........................................................................................316

1.2.2. Contesting Elections..............................................................................317

1.2.3. Recruitment ..........................................................................................320

1.2.4. Representation .....................................................................................320

2. CHARACTERISTICS OF POLITICAL PARTY ....................................................................320

2.1. Ideology ............................................................................................................320

2.2. Political Manifesto ............................................................................................321

2.3. Organizational Structure...................................................................................322

2.4. Constitution (Regulation)..................................................................................325

2.5. Institutionalization............................................................................................325


Table of Contents 11

2.6. Membership..................................................................................................... 326

2.7. Finance............................................................................................................. 328

3. PARTY SYSTEMS........................................................................................................ 331

3.1. Non-Party System ............................................................................................ 333

3.2. Single Party System.......................................................................................... 333

3.3. Two-Party System ............................................................................................ 334

3.4. Dominant Party System.................................................................................... 334

3.5. Multi-Party System........................................................................................... 335

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS.......................................................................... 337

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS ............................................................................. 338

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING..................................... 338


CHAPTER 11: ELECTIONS


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 343

1. RIGHT TO SUFFRAGE................................................................................................. 346

2. PRINCIPLES OF SUFFRAGE......................................................................................... 349

2.1. From limited franchise to universal suffrage ................................................... 349

2.2. From inequality in elections to equal suffrage................................................. 351

2.3. From non-free elections to free suffrage......................................................... 351

2.4. From indirect elections to direct vote.............................................................. 352

2.5. From open voting to secret ballot in the elections.......................................... 352

3. ELECTORAL SYSTEMS ................................................................................................ 353

3.1. Majoritarian Formulas ..................................................................................... 355

3.1.1. Single-Member Plurality (SMP)-First-Past-The-Post (FPTP) ................. 355

3.1.2. Second Ballot Majority-Run-Off-System-Two Round System (2RS) ..... 358

3.1.3. Second Ballot Majority-The Alternative Vote System.......................... 359

3.2. Semi-Proportional Systems.............................................................................. 362

3.2.1. Single Transferable Vote (STV)............................................................. 362

3.2.2. Cumulative Vote................................................................................... 366

3.2.3. Limited Vote......................................................................................... 367

3.3. Proportional Representation (Party List Systems) ........................................... 367

3.3.1. Open List .............................................................................................. 368

3.3.2. Closed List ............................................................................................ 368

3.3.3. Semi-Closed List ................................................................................... 369

3.3.4. Quotas and Divisors ............................................................................. 369

3.4. Mixed Systems................................................................................................. 371

3.4.1. Mixed-Member Proportional (MMP)................................................... 371

3.4.2. Mixed-Member Majoritarian (MMM).................................................. 372


12 Table of Contents

4. ELECTION ADMINISTRATION.....................................................................................374

4.1. Election Management Bodies...........................................................................374

4.1.1. Election Management Bodies in Turkey ...............................................378

4.2. Pre-electoral Administration ............................................................................380

4.3. Voting Period ....................................................................................................380

4.4. Post-Election Period..........................................................................................380

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS ..........................................................................382

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS..............................................................................383

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING .....................................383


CHAPTER 12: HUMAN RIGHTS


INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................387

1. THE ORIGINS OF HUMAN RIGHTS ..............................................................................388

1.1. Religious Origin of Human Rights .....................................................................388

1.2. Philosophical Origins of Human Rights.............................................................391

1.3. Metaphilosophical Justifications of Human Rights...........................................400

2. CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS...................................403

3. INTERNATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS LAW .....................................................................406

3.1. United Nations..................................................................................................408

3.1.1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights ................................................409

3.1.2. Treaty-Based Human Rights Protection Mechanisms...........................410

3.1.3. Non-Treaty-Based Human Rights Protection Mechanisms...................417

3.2. Europe...............................................................................................................418

3.2.1. European Convention on Human Rights...............................................419

3.2.2. European Court of Human Rights .........................................................419

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS ..........................................................................421

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS..............................................................................422

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING .....................................422

ANNEX 1: GLOSSARY .................................................................................................. 423

ANNEX 2: A SELECTION OF WEBSITES OF CONSTITUTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE................. 431


LIST OF TABLES


Table 1: List of the Rights and Liberties of Man and Citizen in the Russian

Constitution................................................................................................... 41

Table 2: List of the Fundamental Rights and Duties in the Turkish Constitution ........ 43

Table 3: Constitutional Amendment Process in the USA in accordance with

Article V......................................................................................................... 46

Table 4: List of the Amendments of US Constitution.................................................. 47

Table 5: Constitutional Amendment Process in Russia in accordance with

Article 135-7 .................................................................................................. 50

Table 6: Constitutional Amendment Process in Turkey in accordance with

Article 175 ..................................................................................................... 52

Table 7: List of the Amendments of Turkish Constitution of 1982 ............................. 53

Table 8: Aristotelian Classification of Constitutions (Regimes)................................... 60

Table 9: Constitutionalism in the World ..................................................................... 70

Table 10: Differences between Constituent and Constituted Power............................ 87

Table 11: Methods of Constitutional Interpretation................................................... 108

Table 12: List of Countries adopting American Model of Constitutional Review........ 124

Table 13: Features of American and European Model of Constitutional Review ....... 128

Table 14: Key Characteristics of Court Systems.......................................................... 133

Table 15: A normative debate: is rights review democratic?...................................... 134

Table 16: The Shifting Borders of Modern States: Not Recognized, Limited

Recognized and Majority Recognition States.............................................. 145

Table 17: The Variety of Federal Political Systems ..................................................... 183

Table 18: Federal States in the World and in the EU (Bold)........................................ 189

Table 19: Differences between Unitary and Federal States........................................ 191

Table 20: Differences between Confederation and Federal States ............................ 191

Table 21: Samples of Assembly Government.............................................................. 201

Table 22: Separate Election in the United States........................................................ 211

Table 23: The Three Major Forms of Democratic Government: Main Features......... 218


Table 24: Controversies among Presidential, Parliamentary and Semi-

Presidential Governments........................................................................... 219


Table 25: Definition of Legislature, Parliament, Assembly and Congress................... 231


14 List of Tables

Table 26: Parliament and Congress Type Legislatures................................................ 232

Table 27: Representation and Role/Asymmetry of Upper Chamber.......................... 250

Table 28: Population and Size of Lower Chambers..................................................... 252

Table 29: Huntington’s Three Waves of Democratization.......................................... 282

Table 30: Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Democracy................................. 285

Table 31: Advantages and Disadvantages of Indirect Democracy .............................. 287

Table 32: Countries which have provision for initiative procedures at the

national level, region................................................................................... 291

Table 33: Examples of Semi-Direct Democracy Devices............................................. 297

Table 34: Majoritarian and Consensus Models of Democracy ................................... 303

Table 35: Freedom House Checklist for Political Rights and Civil Liberties................. 304

Table 36: Definitions of Party ..................................................................................... 314

Table 37: Ideologies at Glance..................................................................................... 321

Table 38: Establishment Dates and Numbers of Members of Political Parties in

Turkey as of 04.02.2020............................................................................... 327

Table 39: Public funding of political parties................................................................ 330

Table 40: Models of Political Parties........................................................................... 332

Table 41: Turnout in the European Union by country and year, in percentage

points .......................................................................................................... 344

Table 42: Voter Turnout in Recent Elections in Turkey .............................................. 345

Table 43: Determinants of election turnout............................................................... 345

Table 44: Should voting be compulsory?.................................................................... 348

Table 45: Voting Rights for Men and Women............................................................. 350

Table 46: Simulation for the allocation of eight seats, with three parties.................. 371

Table 47: Electoral Systems: Legislatures................................................................... 373

Table 48: Characteristics of the Three Broad Models of Electoral Management

and their Component EMBs........................................................................ 377

Table 49: Human Rights Advocates in Major Religions............................................... 390

Table 50: Secular Human Rights Advocates................................................................ 399

Table 51: Human Rights Justifications ........................................................................ 403

Table 52: Regional Human Rights Protection Mechanisms........................................ 419

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