Introduction to Law

Yayınevi: Adalet Yayınları
Yazar: Engin SAYGIN
ISBN: 9786257088930
Stok Durumu: Tükendi
55,00 TL

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Kitap Künyesi
Yazar Engin SAYGIN
Baskı Tarihi 2020/08
Baskı Sayısı 3
Boyut 16x24 cm (Standart Kitap Boyu)
Cilt Karton kapak

Introduction to Law

Engin SAYGIN

2020/08 3. Baskı, 382 Sayfa

ISBN 978-625-708-893-0

As an introductory work, this book aims to provide a balance between a discussion of

the theoretical principles and main legal concepts which underlie the system of law in

every country (such as Constitutional Law and International Law) on the one hand and

an analysis and description of Turkish substantive and procedural law (such as

Administrative Law, Tax Law, Civil Law and Criminal Law) on the other. I believe that

this approach is suited to the growing numbers of foreign students at the faculties of

political sciences in Turkish universities which give greater importance to English

textbooks even in law subjects.

There is, of course, always a danger in any introductory work in oversimplifying key

concepts or key branches of law: this is borne in mind, although essentially the book is

designed for the student of the faculties of political sciences who has litile or no

knowledge of the legal system and legal rules from Turkey and abroad, but who is

preparing for an advance course during the four years educa????on in the faculty.

“If he only knew a little of law,

he would know a little of everything.”

Anonymous

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS


TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................... 5

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION ...................................................................................... 13

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION................................................................................... 14

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION................................................................................... 15

ABOUT THE AUTHOR......................................................................................................... 16

ABOUT THE BOOK ............................................................................................................. 17

A NOTE FOR THE FACULTY OF POLITICAL SCIENCES STUDENTS ........................................ 19

HOW TO USE THIS BOOK................................................................................................... 20


CHAPTER 1: SOCIAL ORDER RULES


INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................. 25

1. SOCIAL ORDER RULES ................................................................................................. 26

1.1. Religious Rules.................................................................................................. 28

1.2. Customary Rules............................................................................................... 29

1.3. Moral Rules....................................................................................................... 30

1.4. Legal Rules ........................................................................................................ 31

1.5. Comparison of Social Order Rules..................................................................... 31

1.6. The Relationship among Social Order Rules ..................................................... 33

1.6.1. The Relationship between Law and Religious Rules ............................. 34

1.6.2. The Relationship between Law and Moral Rules.................................. 35

1.6.3. The Relationship between Law and Customary Rules .......................... 37

2. DEFINITION OF LAW ................................................................................................... 38

2.1. Main Objectives of Law..................................................................................... 40

2.2. Main Types of Legal Sanctions.......................................................................... 40

2.3. Characteristics of Legal Rules............................................................................ 42

3. SOURCES OF LAW....................................................................................................... 42

3.1. Constitution ...................................................................................................... 45

3.2. Codes (Acts, Laws, Bills and Statutes)............................................................... 45

3.3. International Treaties ....................................................................................... 45

3.4. Presidential Decrees......................................................................................... 46


6 Table of Contents

3.5. By-Laws............................................................................................................. 47

3.6. Other Delegated Legislation (Subordinate Legislation) .................................... 47

3.7. Doctrine ............................................................................................................ 48

3.8. Court Decisions................................................................................................. 48

3.9. Hierarchy of Law............................................................................................... 49

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS................................................................................. 51

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................... 53

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING............................................ 53

CHAPTER 2: SYSTEMS OF LAW


INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 59

1. LEGAL SYSTEMS.......................................................................................................... 61

1.1. Common Law System ....................................................................................... 62

1.2. Civil Law System ............................................................................................... 64

1.3. Religious Law System........................................................................................ 66

2. SEVERAL CONCEPTS ................................................................................................... 75

2.1. Law & Justice .................................................................................................... 75

2.2. Legal Positivism & Natural Law......................................................................... 75

2.3. Domestic Law & International Law................................................................... 76

2.3.1. Dualism ................................................................................................. 77

2.3.2. Monism................................................................................................. 78

2.4. Substantial Law & Procedural Law ................................................................... 79

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS................................................................................. 80

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................... 82

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING............................................ 82

CHAPTER 3: APPLICATION OF LEGAL RULES


INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................. 87

1. APPLICATION OF LEGAL RULES................................................................................... 88

1.1. Ascertaining the Applicable Rules .................................................................... 88

1.2. Determining Facts............................................................................................. 89

1.3. Applying the Relevant Provisions of Rule ......................................................... 89

1.3.1. Syllogism............................................................................................... 90

1.3.2. Argumentum a Contrario...................................................................... 91

1.3.3. Analogy (Argumentum a pari)............................................................... 91


Table of Contents 7

2. BURDEN OF PROOF .................................................................................................... 96

2.1. Burden of Proof/In Criminal Cases.................................................................... 96

2.2. Burden of Proof/In Civil Cases .......................................................................... 97

3. PRESUMPTIONS.......................................................................................................... 98

3.1. Statutory Presumption...................................................................................... 98

3.2. Rebuttable Presumption................................................................................... 98

3.3. Irrebuttable Presumption ............................................................................... 100

4. INTERPRETATION OF LEGAL RULES .......................................................................... 100

4.1. Textual Interpretation..................................................................................... 101

4.2. Historical Interpretation ................................................................................. 102

4.3. Logical Interpretation ..................................................................................... 103

4.4. Teleological Interpretation ............................................................................. 103

4.5. Unrestricted Interpretation ............................................................................ 104

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 105

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 107

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 107

CHAPTER 4: BRANCHES OF LAW


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 111

1. CORPUS IURIS CIVILIS ............................................................................................... 112

2. CRITERIA FOR THE DIVISION OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE LAW............................................ 116

2.1. Benefit Criterion ............................................................................................. 116

2.2. Free Will Criterion........................................................................................... 117

2.3. Sovereignty Criterion ...................................................................................... 117

2.4. Equality Criterion ............................................................................................ 118

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 119

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 121

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 121

CHAPTER 5: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 125

1. DEFINITION OF CONSTITUTION................................................................................ 125

1.1. Contents of the Constitution .......................................................................... 127

1.1.1. Preliminary Chapter (or Preamble) ..................................................... 127

1.1.2. General Principles Chapter.................................................................. 128

1.1.3. Institutions of the State Chapter......................................................... 129


8 Table of Contents

1.1.4. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms Chapter ...................................... 132

1.1.5. Effectiveness and Amendment Chapter ............................................. 134

1.2. Essentials or Requisites of a Good Constitution ............................................. 136

2. CLASSIFICATION OF CONSTITUTIONS....................................................................... 137

2.1. Unwritten and Written Constitutions............................................................. 138

2.1.1. Merits and Demerits of Unwritten Constitutions............................... 139

2.1.2. Merits and Demerits of Written Constitutions................................... 141

2.2. Soft and Rigid Constitution............................................................................. 141

2.2.1. Merits and Demerits of Soft Constitutions......................................... 142

2.2.2. Merits and Demerits of Rigid Constitutions........................................ 143

2.3. Frame and Regular Constitution..................................................................... 144

3. CONSTITUTIONALISM IN THE WORLD AND TURKEY ................................................ 145

3.1. The History of Constitutionalism in the World ............................................... 146

3.2. The Constitutional History of Turkey.............................................................. 150

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 156

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 158

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 158

CHAPTER 6: ADMINISTRATIVE LAW


INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 163

1. THE CONCEPT OF ADMINISTRATION........................................................................ 164

1.1. Division of Public-Private Administration ....................................................... 165

1.1.1. The Way of Establishment .................................................................. 165

1.1.2. The Purpose of Establishment/Activity............................................... 165

1.1.3. The Determination of Activity Areas................................................... 165

1.1.4. The Exercise of Public Power.............................................................. 166

1.1.5. The Principle of Equality ..................................................................... 166

1.1.6. The Principle of Legality...................................................................... 166

1.1.7. The Way of Termination ..................................................................... 166

2. THE BIRTH OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW IN FRANCE AND TURKEY ............................. 166

2.1. The Birth of Administrative Law in France...................................................... 167

2.2. The Birth of Administrative Law in Turkey...................................................... 168

2.3. The Features of Administrative Law ............................................................... 169

2. CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLES OF TURKISH ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE............. 170

2.1. Centralization ................................................................................................. 170

2.2. Decentralization ............................................................................................. 172


Table of Contents 9

2.3. The Integrity of Administration....................................................................... 173

2.3.1. Hierarchy............................................................................................. 173

2.3.2. Administrative Tutelage...................................................................... 175

2.3.3. Devolution of Powers.......................................................................... 176

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 179

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 181

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 181


CHAPTER 7: TAX LAW


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 185

1. DEFINITION OF TAX .................................................................................................. 187

2. TURKISH TAXATION SYSTEM .................................................................................... 189

2.1. Tax Procedure ................................................................................................. 189

2.2. Substantive Tax Law........................................................................................ 191

2.2.1. Personal Income Tax ........................................................................... 191

2.2.2. Corporate Income Tax......................................................................... 193

2.2.3. Taxes on Goods and Services.............................................................. 193

2.2.4. Taxes on Property ............................................................................... 197

2.2.5. Other Taxes......................................................................................... 198

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 200

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 202

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 202

CHAPTER 8: INTERNATIONAL LAW


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 205

1. THE CONCEPT OF THE STATE.................................................................................... 208

1.1. The State and Society...................................................................................... 209

1.2. The State and Nation ...................................................................................... 210

1.3. The State and Government............................................................................. 210

2. THE ELEMENTS OF THE STATE.................................................................................. 211

2.1. Territory .......................................................................................................... 211

2.1.1. Background Note on Aegean Disputes Between Turkey and Greece ...... 213

2.2. Population....................................................................................................... 219

2.3. Sovereignty ..................................................................................................... 219

2.3.1. Internal Sovereignty & External Sovereignty ...................................... 222

2.3.2. Real Sovereignty & Nominal Sovereignty............................................ 222

2.3.3. Legal Sovereignty & Political Sovereignty & Popular Sovereignty ...... 223

2.3.4. De Jure Sovereignty & De Facto Sovereignty ...................................... 223


10 Table of Contents

3. THE THEORIES OF THE STATE................................................................................... 224

3.1. Voluntaristic Theories..................................................................................... 224

3.2. Theory of the Contract ................................................................................... 225

3.3. Coercive Theory.............................................................................................. 226

3.4. Environmental Circumscription ...................................................................... 228

3.5. Political Evolution ........................................................................................... 228

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 230

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 232

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 232


CHAPTER 9: CRIMINAL LAW


INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 237

1. THE DEFINITION OF CRIMINAL LAW......................................................................... 239

2. MAJOR ASPECTS OF CRIMINAL LAW ........................................................................ 240

2.1. Definition of Crimes........................................................................................ 240

2.2. Types of Crimes .............................................................................................. 244

2.3. Sanctions ........................................................................................................ 253

2.4. Principle of Non-Retroactivity ........................................................................ 256

3. THE AIMS OF PUNISHMENT ..................................................................................... 257

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 259

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 261

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 261


CHAPTER 10: CIVIL LAW


INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 265

1. TURKISH CIVIL LAW .................................................................................................. 266

1.1. Preliminary Chapter (Articles 1-7) .................................................................. 266

1.2. Book One (Articles 8-117): Law of Persons..................................................... 269

1.2.1. Classification of Persons ..................................................................... 269

1.2.2. Beginning and End of Personality ....................................................... 270

1.2.3. Capacity .............................................................................................. 271

1.3. Book Two (Articles 118-494): Family Law....................................................... 273

1.3.1. Filiation ............................................................................................... 274

1.3.2. Marriage ............................................................................................. 276

1.3.3. Divorce................................................................................................ 277

1.4. Book Three (Articles 495-682): Law of Succession ......................................... 280

1.4.1. Intestate Succession ........................................................................... 281

1.4.2. Testate Succession.............................................................................. 282


Table of Contents 11

1.4.3. Agreement of Inheritance................................................................... 283

1.4.4. Limit of Free Will................................................................................. 283

1.4.5. Reserved Portions............................................................................... 283

1.4.6. Disclaim of Inheritance ....................................................................... 284

1.5. Book Four (Articles 683-1027): Law of Property............................................. 284

2. TURKISH LAW OF OBLIGATIONS............................................................................... 285

2.1. Contracts......................................................................................................... 285

2.2. Illegal Acts (Torts) ........................................................................................... 285

1.1. Unjust Enrichments.................................................................................................. 286

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 287

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 289

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 289

CHAPTER 11: COMMERCIAL LAW


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 293

1. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF COMMERCIAL LAW .......................................................... 293

2. TURKISH COMMERCIAL LAW .......................................................................... 295

2.1. Preliminary Chapter (Articles 1-10)................................................................. 295

2.2. Book One (Article 11-123): Commercial (Business) Enterprises..................... 298

2.3. Book Two (Article 124-644): Business Associations (Corporate Law)............. 300

2.3.1. Collective Company............................................................................. 301

2.3.2. Commandite Company ....................................................................... 302

2.3.3. Joint Stock Company ........................................................................... 302

2.3.4. Limited Companies.............................................................................. 303

2.3.5. Cooperatives....................................................................................... 303

2.4. Book Three (Article 645-849): Commercial Papers......................................... 303

2.5. Book Four (Article 850-930): Transport Business ........................................... 305

2.6. Book Five (Article 931-1400): Maritime Law................................................... 305

2.7. Book Six (Article 1401-1535): Insurance Law.................................................. 306

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 307

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 309

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 309

CHAPTER 12: PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW


INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 313

1. CONFLICT OF LAWS .................................................................................................. 315

2. LAW OF NATIONALITY .............................................................................................. 317


12 Table of Contents

3. LAW OF ALIENS (FOREIGNERS)................................................................................. 320

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 327

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 329

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 329

CHAPTER 13: PROCEDURAL LAW


INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 333

1. THE LAW OF CIVIL PROCEDURE................................................................................ 334

2. THE LAW OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE ....................................................................... 336

3. THE LAW OF ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE............................................................ 344

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 347

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 349

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 349

CHAPTER 14: BRANCHES OF LAW WHERE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LAW


CHARACTERISTICS ARE MIXED


INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................... 353

1. LABOUR LAW............................................................................................................ 353

1.1. Individual Labour Law..................................................................................... 355

1.1.1. Contract of Employment..................................................................... 355

1.1.2. Types of Employment Contracts......................................................... 356

1.1.3. Termination of Labour Contracts........................................................ 357

1.1.4. Obligations and Duties of Employer ................................................... 361

1.1.5. Obligations and Duties of Employee................................................... 363

1.2. Collective Labour Law..................................................................................... 363

1.3. Labour Judiciary.............................................................................................. 365

2. ENVIRONMENTAL LAW ............................................................................................ 366

3. BANKING LAW.......................................................................................................... 369

SELF-TEST QUESTIONS............................................................................... 373

IN-TEXT QUESTIONS .................................................................................. 375

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY/FURTHER READING.......................................... 375

GLOSSARY.................................................................................................................. 377

INDEX......................................................................................................................... 381

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