Introduction to Turkish Civil Law And Law Of Persons (Ciltli)

Yayınevi: Yetkin Yayınları
Yazar: Şebnem AKİPEK - Tuğçe ORAL
ISBN: 9786050511048
76,50 TL 90,00 TL

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Kitap Künyesi
Yazar Şebnem AKİPEK, Tuğçe ORAL
Baskı Tarihi 2022/01
Baskı Sayısı 1
Boyut 16x24 cm (Standart Kitap Boyu)
Cilt Sert Kapak (İplik Dikiş)
Sayfa Sayısı 206

CONTENTS

FOREWORD 5

CONTENTS 7

INTRODUCTION 17

SECTION I 

INTRODUCTION TO TURKISH CIVIL LAW

CHAPTER I CONTEXT AND SOURCES OF LAW 23

I. INTRODUCTION 23

II. RULES OF SOCIAL ORDER 24

A. Religious Rules 25

B. Moral Rules (Moral Codes) 29

C. Rules of Courtesy (Etiquette) 32

D. Legal Rules 34

1. Introduction 34

2. Definition of Law 35

3. Main Objectives of Law 37

a. Introduction 37

b. To Ensure and Preserve Peace 

and Harmony 37

c. To Ensure Legal Certainty 38

d. To Secure Justice 38

e. To Meet Social Necessities 40

4. Main Types of Legal Sanctions 41

a. Introduction 41

b. Penalty 42

c. Security Precautions 42

d. Rescission 42

e. Invalidity 43

i. Introduction 43

ii. Unilateral Bindingness (Inadequacy) 43

iii. Nullity (Being null and void) 44

iv. Annulment (Cancellation-

Rescission) 45

f. Compensation 46

g. Execution 47

CHAPTER II BRANCHES OF LAW 49

I. INTRODUCTION 49

II. BRANCHES OF PRIVATE LAW 54

A. Civil Law 54

B. Commercial Law 56

C. Private International Law 57

III. BRANCHES OF PUBLIC LAW 57

A. Constitutional Law 57

B. Administrative Law 59

C. Criminal Law 60

D. Law of Civil, Criminal and Administrative Procedure 60

E. Execution and Bankruptcy Law 61

F. International Public Law 61

IV. BRANCHES OF MIXED LAW 62

CHAPTER III SOURCES OF TURKISH LAW 63

I. TURKISH CIVIL CODE ARTICLE 1 63

II. MEANING OF “THE CODE” AND THE SOURCES OF LAW 65

A. Introduction 65

B. Sources of Law 66

1. Primary (Direct) Sources 66

a. Written Sources 66

b. Unwritten Source – Customary 

Law 71

2. Secondary (Indirect) Sources of Law 72

a. Doctrine 72

b. Court Decisions (Precedents) 73

CHAPTER IV APPLICATION AND 

INTERPRETATION OF LAW 75

I. GENERAL 75

II. APPLICATION OF LAW 76

A. Territorial Application of Law 76

B. Ratione Temporis Application of Law 77

III.  INTERPRETATION OF CODES 80

A. Textual Interpretation (Grammatical Interpretation) 82

B. Systematic Interpretation 83

C. Historical Interpretation 83

D. Teleological Interpretation (Ratio Legis) 84

IV. LACUNA (GAP) IN LAW AND GAP-FILLING 84

A. Types of Lacunae 86

1. Types of Intra Legem Lacuna 88

a. Referral 88

b. Referral to the General Clauses 

and Judicial Discretion 88

2. Lacuna of Definition 90

3. Types of Extra Legem Lacuna 91

a. Genuine Lacunae 91

b. Non-Genuine Lacuna 92

B. Gap Filling in Law 93

1. The Methods of Gap Filling 93

a. Customary Law 93

b. Creation of Law by the Judge 94

2. Types of Creation of Law by 

the Judge 95

V. JUDICIAL DISCRETION 99

CHAPTER V OBJECTIVE GOOD FAITH 101

I. INTRODUCTION 101

II. CHARACTERISTICS OF OBJECTIVE GOOD 

FAITH 102

A. Being Extra-personal 102

B. Being Considered Per se 103

C. Subsidiarity and Being Explanatory 103

D. Being Eliminable through a Contract 103

E. Being a Part of General Principles 103

III. THE ISSUE WHETHER THE OBJECTIVE 

GOOD FAITH CAN BE ELIMINATED BY 

THE PARTIES OR NOT 104

A. The View that Accepts Objective Good 

Faith is Related to Public Order 104

1. Some Legal Rules can be Applied per se Although they are not Related to 

Public Order 105

2. The Claim about the Breach of Art. 

2 is Technically not an Objection 105

3. Even Though There is a Breach of 

Art. 2, the Return of Any Performance cannot be Demanded 106

B. The View that is Appropriate to the 

Purpose of Art. 2 para. 1 TCC 106

IV. DIFFERENCES AND RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OBJECTIVE GOOD FAITH AND 

SIMILAR CONCEPTS 107

A. Objective Good Faith – Subjective Good Faith 107

B. Moral Rules – Objective Good Faith 108

C. Practices of Business Relationships – Objective Good Faith 108

V. APPLICATION OF GOOD FAITH 108

A. Application of Good Faith to Legal Transactions 108

1. Conclusion of Legal Transactions 108

2. Interpretation of Legal Transactions 109

3. Completion of Legal Transactions 110

4. Conversation of Legal Transactions 111

5. Culpa in Contrahendo 111

6. Clausula Rebus Sic Stantibus 

(Improvisation of the Contract) 112

B. Application of Good Faith During the Application of Codes 112

1. Interpretation of Codes 112

2. Prohibition of Fraud Against Law 

(Fraus legi facto) 113

C. Application of Good Faith from the Aspect 

of Fulfilment of Obligations 113

VI. PROHIBITION AGAINST ABUSE OF 

RIGHTS 114

A. Introduction 114

B. Main Examples of Abuse of Rights 116

1. Absence of any Profit During the 

Exercise of a Right 116

2. Existence of an Excessive Disproportionality Between the 

Benefits of the Parties 117

3. Contradictory Behaviour 118

C. The Results of Abuse of Right 120


CHAPTER VI SUBJECTIVE GOOD FAITH 121

I. INTRODUCTION 121

II. ELEMENTS OF GOOD FAITH 122

A. Obligation to Know Arising from 

the Codes or Statutes 123

B. Obligation to Know with the Force of 

Circumstances 124

III. THE RESULTS OF HAVING SUBJECTIVE 

 GOOD FAITH 124

A. Extinction of All Results Arising from Invalidity 124

B. Lightening of Some Results Arising 

from Invalidity 126

CHAPTER VII RULES OF EVIDENCE, PUBLIC DEEDS AND REGISTERS 127

I. INTRODUCTION 127

II. EXCEPTIONS OF GENERAL RULE 128

A. Normal Circumstances 128

B. Reversal of the Burden of Proof 129

C. Presumptions 129

1. Types of Presumptions 129

a. Legal Presumptions 130

i. Ordinary Presumptions 130

ii. Absolute Presumptions 130

b. Actual Presumptions 131

2. Legal Consequences of 

Presumptions 132

III. PUBLIC DEEDS AND REGISTERS 132

A. Public Deeds 132

B. Public Registers 133

C. Nature of the Public Deeds and 

Registers 133

SECTION II 

LAW OF PERSONS

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE LAW OF PERSONS 137

I. CONCEPT OF PERSON 137

A. Introduction 137

B. Categories of Persons 139

II. THE CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY 139

A. Introduction 139

B. The Content of Personality 140

CHAPTER II REAL (NATURAL) PERSONALITY 143

I. THE BEGINNING AND THE END OF 

PERSONALITY 143

A. Introduction 143

B. Beginning of Personality 143

1. Completed Birth (Whole Birth) 144

2. Living Child (Being Alive) 144

C. The Legal Status of the Fetus 

(Child Before Birth) 145

II. END OF PERSONALITY 146

A. Introduction 146

B. Proof of Death 146

C. The Statuses of the Persons Whose Conditions are Unknown 148

1. Presumption of Death 148

a. Requirements of the Application 

of This presumption 149

b. Legal Consequences of the Presumption of Death 150

2. Presumption of Absence 151

a. Conditions of Declaration on 

Presumption of Absence 151

b. Prerequisites 152

c. Procedure 154

d. Legal Consequences of the Declaration of Absence 155

CHAPTER III CAPACITY OF A PERSON 157

I. LEGAL CAPACITY (CAPACITY TO HAVE RIGHTS AND DUTIES) 157

A. Introduction 157

B. Restriction of Legal Capacity 158

1. Introduction 158

2. Reasons for Restriction 159

II. CAPACITY TO ACT 160

A. Introduction 160

B. The Content of Capacity to Act 161

1. Capacity to Enter into Legal 

Relations 161

2. Capacity to Dispose 162

3. Capacity to be Liable from Torts 163

4. Capacity to Bring an Action 163

C. Requirements of Capacity to Act 163

1. Capacity of Judgement (Discretion) 164

2. Majority 166

3. Not Being Placed under 

Guardianship 168

D. Degrees of Capacity to Act 168

1. Full Capacity 169

2. Full Incapacity 169

3. Limited Capacity 174

4. Limited Incapacity 174


CHAPTER IV PROTECTION OF 

PERSONALITY 181

I. THE CONTENT OF PERSONALITY 181

II. PERSONALITY RIGHT 182

III. WAYS TO PROTECT PERSONALITY RIGHT 182

A. Protection in Propria Persona: 

Self Defence 182

B. Protection Through the Ways Foreseen 

in the Code 183

1. Protection of Personality against 

Oneself 183

2. Protection of Personality against 

the Third Persons 185

CHAPTER V DOMICILE 189

I. CONCEPT 189

II. TYPES OF DOMICILES 190

REFERENCES 193


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