Protection of Internally Displaced People from Arbitrary Displacement: The Development of a New Right

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Yazar: Naziye DİRİKGİL
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Protection of Internally Displaced People  from Arbitrary Displacement: The  Development of a New Right


CONTENTS

ABSTRACT.........................................................................................1

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..................................................................2

CHAPTER 1:

INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY

1.1. How has academia studied the global issue of internal 

displacement and the international law surrounding the rights 

of IDPs? .................................................................................6

1.2. Contributions........................................................................19

1.3. Study Outline .......................................................................20

CHAPTER 2:

INTERNALLY DISPLACED PERSONS AS A GLOBAL 

PROBLEM

2.1. Introduction..........................................................................22

2.2. The Concept of Internally Displaced Persons......................23

2.3. Framing a Definition of IDPs ..............................................25

2.4. The Contribution of the IDP Definition in the Guiding 

Principles..............................................................................31

2.5. Coordination and Protection Issues......................................34

2.6. The UN Security Council’s Involvement in the 

Protection of IDPs................................................................38

2.7. IDPs as a Special Category of Concern ...............................41

2.8. An Overview of the Specific Needs of IDPs and their Rights 

under International Law.......................................................44

2.9. The Content of the Guiding Principles ................................49

2.10. The Legal Nature of the Guiding Principles........................57

2.11. Prevention is Better Than Cure............................................61

2.12. Conclusion ...........................................................................66

VI

CHAPTER 3:

PROHIBITION OF FORCED DISPLACEMENT: ITS SCOPE 

OF APPLICATION IN THE IDP CONCEPT AND THE 

APPLICABLE LAW

3.1. Introduction..........................................................................68

3.2. Interaction between IHL, IHRL and ICL.............................69

3.3. Forced Displacement of IDPs..............................................78

3.4. Prohibition of Forced Displacement under IHL ..................86

3.4.1. Forced Displacement and International-Armed Conflict .87

3.4.2. Forced Displacement and Non-International Armed 

Conflict.............................................................................92

3.5. Prohibition of Forced Displacement under International 

Criminal Law .....................................................................104

3.5.1. Forced Displacement as War Crimes.............................105

3.5.2. Forced Displacement as Crimes against Humanity........107

3.5.3. Forced Displacement and Ethnic Cleansing...................109

3.5.4. Forced Displacement Amounts to Other Inhumane Acts

111

3.6. The Prohibition of Forced Displacement under International 

Human Rights Law ............................................................117

3.7. CONCLUSION..................................................................126

CHAPTER 4:

THE RIGHT NOT TO BE ARBITRARILY DISPLACED

4.1. Introduction........................................................................129

4.2. Developments Leading to Explicit Recognition of the Right 

Not to be Arbitrarily Displaced..........................................130

4.3. Rights-Based Approach to Internal Displacement.............135

4.4. The Right not to be Arbitrarily Displaced as a Free-Standing 

Right ................................................................................138

4.1.1. Human Rights Should Reflect a Fundamentally Important 

Social Value ...................................................................146

4.2.2. Human rights should be consistent with, but not merely 

repetitive of, the existing body of international human 

rights law........................................................................151

4.4.3. Human Rights should be sufficiently precise as to give rise 

to identifiable rights and obligations..............................153

VII

4.4.4. Human Rights should be compatible or at least not clearly 

incompatible with the general practice of states ............168

4.4.5. Human Rights should be eligible for recognition on the 

grounds that it is an interpretation of UN Charter 

obligations......................................................................173

4.5. CONCLUSION..................................................................179

CHAPTER 5:

DEVELOPING NATIONAL IDP LAWS AND POLICIES ON 

PROTECTION FROM ARBITRARY DISPLACEMENT: 

REFLECTIONS OF REALITY WITH CASE STUDIES

5.1. Introduction........................................................................182

5.2. The Significance of National Frameworks ........................184

5.3. PART-I: An Overview of National Approaches to the 

Prevention of Internal Displacement .................................187

5.3.1. Varieties in the development of national IDP laws and 

policies...........................................................................187

5.3.2. The ways to address the Prevention of arbitrary 

displacement in adopted national IDP Instruments........191

5.3.3. Strengthening the Prevention of Arbitrary Displacement 

with Different Formats of 

Instruments.....................................................................204

5.4. Part-II: Reflection of the Implementation with Case 

Studies................................................................................207

5.4.1. The case of Colombia.....................................................208

5.4.2. The Problem of Forced Displacement in Colombia And Its 

Context...........................................................................209

5.4.3. Colombian Law on Internal Displacement and Its 

Relevance to the Prevention of Forced

Displacement..................................................................211

5.4.4. Limitations of the Implementation on the Colombian IDPLaw regarding the Prevention of 

Displacement..................................................................216

5.4.5. The Contribution of the Constitutional Court of Colombia 

to the Prevention of Displacement in Colombian 

Government Policies......................................................220

5.4.5.1.The Constitutional Court’s rights-based 

approach for the effective enjoyment of IDP’s 

fundamental rights......................................222

VIII

5.4.5.2.The Constitutional Court’s interpretation of 

Colombia’s responsibility in the prevention of 

displacement and its contribution to the InterAmerican Court decisions..........................227

5.4.6. The case of Kenya..........................................................234

5.4.7. Overview of Internal Displacement in Kenya................235

5.4.8. Legal and Policy Frameworks for Protection of IDP-rights 

in Kenya .........................................................................237

5.4.9. A Comparative Assessment of the Kenya’s National IDP 

Frameworks (IDP Act - Draft IDP Policy).....................239

5.4.10. Kenya’s obligation to prevent arbitrary displacement under 

the 2012 IDP Act and 2010 Draft National Policy.........243

5.4.11. Limitations of the Implementation on the Kenyan IDPLaw Regarding the Prevention of 

Displacement..................................................................252

5.5. CONCLUSION..................................................................256

CHAPTER 6:

CONCLUSION, CONTRIBUTIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 

FOR INTERNATIONAL LAW

6.1. Contributions..................................................................266

BIBILIOGRAPHY ...............................................................275



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Prosecutor v. Kordić & Čerkez (IT-95-14/2), Appeals Judgment, 17 December 2004

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National IDP Frameworks

Colombia's Constitution of 1991

2003- Afghanistan: IDP Strategy

2013-Afghanistan: The National Policy on Internally Displaced Persons

1999- Azerbaijan: Law No. 669-1Q of 1999 ‘on Social Protection of Internally Displaced Persons and Persons Equated to Them’

2015-Bangladesh: National Strategy on the Management of Disaster and Climate Induced Internal Displacement

2000- Bosnia and Herzegovina: Law No. 01-286/2000 of 2000 on Displaced-Expelled Persons and Repatriates in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina 

2003- Bosnia and Herzegovina: Criminal Code of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the FBiH 36/03)

2010 -Bosnia and Herzegovina: IDP Policy- Revised strategy of Bosnia and Herzegovina For the Implementation of Annex VII of the Dayton Peace Agreement

2001-Burundi: Protocol for the creation of a permanent framework for consultation on the protection of displaced persons

2014-Central African Republic: Roadmap for the Development of National Legislation on Internal Displacement

2015-Central African Republic: National Policy on Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons in Central Africa

1997-Colombia: Law 387 on Internal Displacement of 1997

2011-Victims and Land Restitution Law of 2011 (Law 1448)

1995-Colombia: CONPES Document 2804: National Program of Integral Attention to the Population Displaced by Violence

1998-Colombia:  Decree No. 173 of 1998 by which the National Plan for the Comprehensive Care of the Population Displaced by Violence

1999-Colombia: Strategic plan for managing internal displacement forced by the armed conflict

1999-Colombia:  Document CONPES 3057: Action plan for the prevention and care of forced displacement

2005-Colombia: Decree No. 250 by which the National Plan for the Comprehensive Care of the Population Displaced by Violence

2012-Colombia:  Decree No. 1725 of 2012 by which the National Plan for Comprehensive Care and Reparation for Victims, dealt with by Law 1448 of 2011

2012-Colombia:  Decree No. 1725 of 2012 by which the National Plan for Comprehensive Care and Reparation for Victims, dealt with by Law 1448 of 2011

2016-Democratic Republic of the Congo: Provincial Strategy for Sustainable Solutions for Internally Displaced Persons in North Kivu

1997-Ethiopia: Proclamation no. 89/1997, Federal Rural Land Administration

2018-Ethiopia: Humanitarian and Disaster Resilience Plan

2005-Eritrea: Proclamation No. 145/2005 of 2005, Non-governmental Organization Administration Proclamation

2018-Fiji: Planned Relocation Guidelines - A framework to undertake climate change related relocation

2008-Gambia:                                                                                      National Disaster Management Bill

1996-Georgia: Law of the Republic of Georgia Concerning Internally Displaced People.

2007-Georgia: Decree No. 47 on ‘Approving of the State Strategy for Internally Displaced Persons – Persecuted’

2009-Georgia: Decree No.575 "Regarding the amendment of the Government Decree No.403 of 28 May, 2009 about 'Adoption of the Action Plan for the Implementation of the State Strategy on IDPs during 2009-2012

2010-Georgia: Decree of the Georgian Government No.575

2014-Georgia: Law of 2014 on Internally Displaced Persons – Persecuted from the Occupied Territories of Georgia         

2016-Honduras: Law for the prevention, care and protection of internally displaced persons

2008-Iraq: National Policy on Displacement

2008-Iraq: Prime Minister's Order 101/S of 2008 (property).

2008- Kenya: Kenya National Accord and Reconciliation Act No. 4

2009-Kenya: National Disaster Response Plan

2009- Kenya: Eviction and Resettlement Guidelines

2011- Kenya: National policy on the prevention of internal displacement and the protection and assistance to internally displaced persons in Kenya

2011-Kenya: Kenya National Commission on Human Rights Act No. 14

2012- Kenya: Evictions and Resettlement Procedures Bill                  

2012- Kenya: Act No. 56 of 2012, Prevention, Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons and Affected Communities Act

2013-Kosovo: National Legislative Bodies / National Authorities, Kosovo: Strategy for Communities and Returns (2014 to 2018)

2002-Kyrgyzstan: Law No.133 on Internal Migration

2004-Liberia: Instrument of Adoption of Guiding Principles on Internally Displaced Persons

2015-Malawi: National Disaster Risk Management Policy

2014-Mexico: Law for the Prevention of and Response to Internal Displacement in the State of Guerrero, Decree No. 487

2012- Mexico: Law for the Prevention of and Response to Internal Displacement in the State of Chiapas, Decree N. 158

2011-Namibia: National Disaster Risk Management Plan

2007-Nepal: National Policies on Internally Displaced Persons

2018-Niger: Bill on the Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons in Niger

2016-Nigeria: The Buhari Plan                                                            

2012- Nigeria: National Policy on Internally Displaced Persons

2016- Nigeria: Rights of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) Bill

2013-Pakistan: National Disaster Risk Reduction Policy

2014-Peru: Law No. 28223 on Internal Displacement

2010-Philippines: Act No.101211, Disaster Risk Reduction and Management        

2014-Philippines: Rights of Internally Displaced Persons Act, Senate Bill No.1142

2006-Sierra Leone: Disaster Management Policy

2019-Somalia: Banadir Regional Administration & Municipality of Mogadishu: Internally Displaced Person & Refugee Returnees Policy                                                                    

2012- Somalia: Puntland Policy Guidelines on Displacement

2015- Somalia: Somaliland Internal Displacement Policy

2019- Somalia: National Policy on Refugee-Returnees and internally Displaced Persons

2019-South Sudan: Protection and Assistance to Internally Displaced Persons Act

2006-Sri-Lanka: Guidelines on Confidence Building and Stabilisation Measures for IDPs in the North and East of Sri Lanka

2011- Sri-Lanka: National Action Plan for the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights

2016- Sri-Lanka: National Policy Framework on Durable Solutions

2006-Sudan: Eastern States Peace Agreement of 2006

2009- Sudan: National Policy for Internally Displaced Persons

2012- Sudan: Doha Document for Peace in Darfur

2008-Timor Leste: National Disaster Risk Management Policy

2004- Uganda: National Policy for Internally Displaced Persons

2013-Uganda: National Land Policy                                                    

2014-Ukraine: Law No. 1706-VII, on Ensuring Rights and Freedoms of Internally Displaced Persons

2015- Ukraine: Resolution No.1094 ‘on Approval of the Comprehensive National Programme for Support, Social Adaptation and Reintegration of Citizens of Ukraine Internally Displaced from the Temporarily Occupied Territory of Ukraine and Anti-Terrorist Operation Conduct Area of Other Regions of Ukraine for the period until 2017’

2018-Vanuatu: National Policy on Climate Change and Disaster-Induced Displacement

2013-Yemen: National Policy for Addressing Internal Displacement in the Republic of Yemen

2013-Zambia: Guidelines for the Compensation and Resettlement of Internally Displaced Persons

2015-Zambia: National Resettlement Policy

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