The Intellectual Property Trilogy: Untraditional Topics In Copyright, Patent And Trademark

Yayınevi: Yetkin Yayınları
Yazar: A. Ece KAYA
ISBN: 9786050508741
Stok Durumu: Stokta var
29,75 TL 35,00 TL

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Kitap Künyesi
Yazar A. Ece KAYA
Baskı Tarihi 2021/06
Baskı Sayısı 1
Boyut 16x24 cm (Standart Kitap Boyu)
Cilt Karton kapak
Sayfa Sayısı 99

The first chapter of this book focuses of the question whether the copyright on literary, scientific and artistic works can be granted an unusual author, an artificial intelligence. In the second chapter, the patentability of a very common technology in today’s world that can also make inventions, the computer programs, as well as computer implemented inventions is examined. Finally, the third chapter includes a comparative law research on an untraditional type of trademark, the color trademark, in EU law and in Turkish Law.

From September 2018 to September 2019, I pursued a master’s degree in Intellectual Property and Information Technology Law (LL.M. IP and IT-Law) at the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University in Hanover in cooperation with the University of Lapland in Rovaniemi. During my studies I did research on several topics in European IP and IT-Law and scrutinized how and to what extend these fields impact one another. This work consists of three articles on intellectual property law which are selected from various articles due to their interdisciplinary and untraditional topics.

The first chapter of this book focuses of the question whether the copyright on literary, scientific and artistic works can be granted an unusual author, an artificial intelligence. In the second chapter, the patentability of a very common technology in today’s world that can also make inventions, the computer programs, as well as computer implemented inventions is examined. Finally, the third chapter includes a comparative law research on an untraditional type of trademark, the color trademark, in EU law and in Turkish Law.

It is needless to say that the completion of this research is not the sole achievement of the author. I would like to express my gratitude to my tutors Prof. Dr. Christian Heinze and Dr. Ioannis Revolidis at the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz University and Mrs. Rosa Ballardini and Prof. Dr. Rauno Korhonen at the University of Lapland for their valuable guidance and support for the completion of my studies. I am very thankful to Dr. Maria Mammeri-Latzel for supporting me in every possible way during my entire stay in Germany.

I would like to acknowledge the support of Yetkin Yayıncılık, especially Mr. Muharrem Başer for the publication of this work.


Lastly, but most importantly, I acknowledge the contribution of my mother, father and brother from the bottom of my heart, who have always supported and encouraged me to go a step further in the life. I dedicate this book to my family.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Authors Preface ............................................................................................ 7

TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................ 9

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ................................................................... 13

CHAPTER ONE: COPYRIGHT COPYRIGHT PROTECTION FOR THE “CREATIONS” OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN EUROPEAN UNION LAW

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 17

I. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) ............................................. 18

A. DEFINITION .............................................................................. 18

B. CREATIONS OF AI ................................................................. 19

II. COPYRIGHT ................................................................................. 20

A. LEGAL FRAMEWORK ........................................................... 20

B. RATIONALE ............................................................................ 21

C. KEY REQUIREMENT ............................................................. 21

D. THE AUTHOR .......................................................................... 23

III. ELIGIBILITY OF AI-GENERATED WORKS FOR COPYRIGHT PROTECTION ............................................................................... 25

A. AI AS MERE TOOL ................................................................. 26

B. CO-CREATION WITH HUMAN ............................................ 27

C. BRUTE FORCE CREATION ................................................... 27

D. SOLE CREATION .................................................................... 28

IV. PROTECTION OF AI-GENERATED WORKS ........................... 31

A. PUBLIC DOMAIN ..................................................................... 31

B. PROTECTION UNDER RELATED RIGHTS ......................... 33

C. PROTECTION UNDER COPYRIGHT .................................... 34

V. OWNERSHIP OF THE RIGHTS ................................................... 35

A. AI ITSELF .................................................................................. 36

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B. THE PROGRAMMER OF AI .................................................... 36

C. THE END-USER OF AI ........................................................... 38

CONCLUSION .......................................................................................... 41

LIST OF REFERENCES .......................................................................... 43

Literature ................................................................................................ 43

Legislation ............................................................................................. 44

Cases ...................................................................................................... 45

CHAPTER TWO: PATENT PATENTABLE SUBJECT MATTER IN EUROPEAN UNION LAW: THE CASE OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 49

I. COMPUTER PROGRAM .............................................................. 50

II. PROTECTION OF COMPUTER PROGRAMS ............................ 51

A. HISTORY .................................................................................. 52

B. COPYRIGHT PROTECTION .................................................. 54

C. PATENT PROTECTION ........................................................... 56

1. General Requirements for Patent Protection ....................... 57

2. Patent Protection Requirements for Computer Programs ...... 58

a. The Vicom Case ............................................................ 59

b. IBM Cases ..................................................................... 61

c. Hitachi Case .................................................................. 62

d. Microsoft Case .............................................................. 64

III. COMPUTER IMPLEMENTED INVENTIONS ............................ 67

CONCLUSION .......................................................................................... 69

LIST OF REFERENCES .......................................................................... 71

Literature ................................................................................................ 71

Legislation ............................................................................................. 72

Cases ...................................................................................................... 72

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CHAPTER THREE: TRADEMARK COLOR TRADEMARKS IN EUROPEAN UNION LAW AND TURKISH LAW

INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................... 77

I. COLOR MARKS IN EUROPEAN UNION LAW ........................ 78

A. DISTINCTIVENESS ................................................................ 79

1. Libertel case ........................................................................ 82

2. KWS Saat Case .................................................................... 83

3. Heidelberger case ................................................................ 84

B. BEING REPRESENTED ON THE REGISTER ....................... 85

II. COLOR MARKS IN TURKISH LAW .......................................... 87

A. DISTINCTIVENESS ................................................................ 88

1. Color Combinations ............................................................ 90

2. Single Colors ....................................................................... 91

B. BEING REPRESENTED ON THE REGISTER ....................... 93

CONCLUSION .......................................................................................... 95

LIST OF REFERENCES .......................................................................... 97

Literature ................................................................................................ 97

Legislation ............................................................................................. 98

Cases ...................................................................................................... 99

European Union ............................................................................... 99

Turkey .............................................................................................. 99

Literature

Çolak, Uğur: Türk Marka Hukuku, İstanbul: On İki Levha 2016, 3. Baskı.

Er, Turan Hakkı: Markanın Doğuşu, Kurumsallaşması ve Yeni Marka Formları, Fikri Mülkiyet Hukuku Yıllığı 2010, İstanbul: On İki Levha 2010.

Eroğlu, Sevilay: Soyut Renk, Ses ve Üç Boyutlu İşaretlerin Marka Olarak Tescili, DEÜHFD, V. 5, I. 1, 2003.

Guidelines for Examination of European Union Trade Marks European Union Intellectual Property Offıce (EUIPO), Part B, Examination (2017),

<https://euipo.europa.eu/tunnel-web/secure/webdav/guest/ document_library/contentPdfs/law_and_practice/trade_marks_practice_manual/WP_2_2017/Part-B/04part_b_examination_section_4_ absolute_grounds_for_refusal/part_B_examination_section_4_chapter_14/part_B_examination_section_4_chapter_14_Acquired_distinctiveness_en.pdf>

Humphreys, Gordon, A Selective Review of Colour Mark Issues and Case Law in the EU (2013), <http://fordhamipconference.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/2013.humphries.design.paper_.pdf>

Itten, Johannes: The Elements of Color (translated by Ernst van Hagen), New York: VanNostrand Reinhold 1970.

Karahan, Sami: Marka Hukukunda Hükümsüzlük Davaları, Konya: Mimoza 2002.

Karan, Hakan/Kılıç, Mehmet: Markaların Korunması 556 Sayılı KHK Şerhi ve İlgili Mevzuat, Ankara: Turhan 2004.

Kaya, Arslan: Marka Hukuku, İstanbul: Arıkan 2006.

98

Kudrjavceva, Jekaterina, Issues surrounding registration of colour trade marks, RGSL Research Papers No. 9 (2012)

<https://www.rgsl.edu.lv/uploads/research-papers-list/14/rp-9-kudrjavceva-final.pdf>

Okutan Nilsson, Gül: Sesler, Renkler ve Kokular Marka Olarak Tescil Edilebilir Mi? Avrupa Toplulukları Mahkemesinin Üç Kararı, Prof. Dr. Gülören Tekinalp'e Armağan, Milletlerarası Hukuk ve Milletlerarası Özel Hukuk Bülteni, Yıl: 23, I. 1-2, 2003.

Oytaç, Kutlu: Karşılaştırmalı Marka Hukuku, İstanbul: Nobel 2002, 2. Baskı.

Şenocak, Kemal: Soyut Renk Markaları, Prof. Dr. Turgut Kalpsüz'e Armağan, Ankara: Turhan 2003.

Tekinalp, Ünal: Fikri Mülkiyet Hukuku, İstanbul: Vedat 2012, Beşinci Baskı,

Yasaman, Hamdi: Marka Hukuku: 556 sayılı KHK Şerhi, Cilt: 1, Ankara: Vedat 2004.

Legislation

Council Regulation (EC) No 40/94 of 20 December 1993 on the Community trade mark, OJ L 11, 14.1.1994.

Directive (EU) 2015/2436 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2015 to approximate the laws of the Member States relating to trade marks, OJ L 336, 23.12.2015.

First Council Directive 89/104/EEC of 21 December 1988 to approximate the laws of the Member States relating to trade marks, OJ L 40, 11.2.1989.

Regulation (EU) 2015/2424 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2015 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 207/2009 on the Community trade mark and Commission Regulation (EC) No 2868/95 implementing Council Regulation (EC) No 40/94 on the Community trade mark, and repealing Commission Regulation (EC) No 2869/95 on the fees payable to the Office for Harmonization

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in the Internal Market (Trade Marks and Designs), OJ L 341, 24.12.2015.

Cases

European Union

C-104/01 Libertel Groep BV v Benelux-Merkenbureau, [2003] I-03793

C-108/97 and C-109/97 Windsurfing Chiemsee Produktions und Vertriebs GmbH (WSC) v. Boots- und Segelzubehör Walter Huber and Franz Attenberger, [1999] ECR I-2779

R 1620/2006-2 Mars UK Limited (purple, for Whiskas cat food)

C-542/07 Pure Digital [2009] EU C-362

C-108/05 Europolis [2006] EU C-530

C-447/02 P - KWS Saat v OHIM [2004] ECR I-10107

C-49/02 Heidelberger Bauchemie [2004] ECR I-6129

Turkey

Yargıtay 11. HD, E. 1997/8873, K. 1998/4815, T. 25.6.1998

Yargıtay 11. HD, E. 1999/6866, K. 1999/9075, T. 12.11.1999

Yargıtay 11. HD, E. 2001/7583, K. 2001/9840, T. 13.12.2001

Yargıtay 11. HD, E. 2017/2151, K. 2019/3, T. 02.01.2019

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