The Relation Between EU Competition Policy and Consumers in Online Multi-Sided Platform Market: An Analysis Based on Consumer Welfare Standard

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Yazar: Erman EKİNGEN
ISBN: 9786050512007
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The Relation Between EU Competition Policy and Consumers in Online Multi-Sided Platform Market: An Analysis Based on Consumer Welfare Standard

Dr. Erman EKİNGEN


Table of Contents

Abstract................................................................................................v

Acknowledgements.............................................................................vi

Table of Contents............................................................................. vii

Table of Figures............................................................................... xiii

Table of Legislation...........................................................................xv

Table of Cases...................................................................................xix

The List of Abbreviations............................................................. xxiii

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION, METHODOLOGY AND

STRUCTURE OF THE BOOK

1.1.The Issue .....................................................................................1

1.2.Research Questions .....................................................................4

1.3 Structure of the Book ..................................................................5

1.4 Research Methodology................................................................7

1.4.1 Doctrinal Legal Research Methodology............................8

1.4.1.2 The Concept of ‘Consumer Welfare’..................10

CHAPTER 2

THE APPEARANCE OF THE ONLINE

MULTI-SIDED PLATFORM MARKETS IN EU

COMPETITION LAW

2.1 Current Status of the Digital Markets in EU Competition Law

and Their General Features.......................................................18

2.2 Online Multi-Sided Platforms in General .................................24

2.2.1 Detailed Points on Online Multi-Sided Platforms...........30

2.2.1.1 Differences Between Online Multi-Sided

Platforms and Retailers.......................................30

2.2.1.2 Difference Between Business to Business and

Business to Consumer Relations in terms of

Online Multi-Sided Platforms.............................33

viii

2.2.2 Importance of Consumers in Online Multi-Sided

Platforms .........................................................................34

2.3 Main Features of Online Multi-Sided Platform Relationships..37

2.3.1 Existence of More Than One Customer Group with

Different Demand Structures ..........................................38

2.3.2 Existence of Indirect Networks Effects...........................38

2.3.3 Existence of a Platform That Creates Inter-Group

Relationships...................................................................40

2.3.4 Existence of Downstream-Actors-Oriented Consumer

Concept............................................................................40

2.4 Different Types of Online Multi-Sided Platforms ....................51

2.4.1 Consumer Transaction Platforms ....................................54

2.4.2 Consumer Info Platforms.................................................56

2.5 Reasons to Evaluate Online Multi-Sided Platform Markets

Differently.................................................................................59

2.5.1 Market Definition ............................................................59

2.5.2 Market Power...................................................................60

2.5.3 Chicken-Egg Problem......................................................62

2.5.4 Cartel Activities...............................................................62

2.5.5 Pricing Strategies and Price Discrimination ....................63

2.5.6 Externalities and Skewed Pricing ....................................64

2.6 Conclusion.................................................................................67

CHAPTER 3

GEO-BLOCKING IN EU COMPETITION LAW

3.1 Geo-Blocking in General ..........................................................72

3.1.1 Methods of Geo-Blocking ...............................................73

3.1.2 Distinction Between Justified and Unjustified GeoBlocking ..........................................................................76

3.1.3 The Circumvention of Geo-Blocking ..............................77

3.2 Geo-Blocking as Part of European Digital Single Market

Strategy.....................................................................................79

3.2.1 The Validity of Geo-Blocking Practices in EU

Cometition Law...............................................................80

3.2.1.1 Articles 101 and 102 TFEU ................................80

ix

3.2.1.2 EU Sources Related to Geo-Blocking Before the

Launch of the EU Digital Single Market

Strategy ...............................................................81

3.2.1.3 EU Sources Related to Geo-Blocking After the

Launch of the European Digital Single Market

Strategy ...............................................................82

3.2.1.4 The Regulation on Unjustified Geo-Blocking ....85

3.3 Geo-Blocking for Copyrighted Content: Competition vs.

Copyright ..................................................................................87

3.3.1 Sides of Online Multi-Sided Platforms which Include

Copyrighted Works as Content .......................................90

3.3.1.1 Consumer Definition in these Platform

Relationships.......................................................92

3.3.2 Reasons Why Geo-Blocking Should be Eliminated for

Copyrighted Content from an EU Competition Law

Perspective in Light of the Consumer Welfare Standard 93

3.3.2.1 Price.....................................................................97

3.3.2.2 Quality and Choice............................................101

3.3.2.4 Innovation..........................................................110

3.4 Language as a Natural Barrier for Cross-Border Trade of

Copyrighted Content...............................................................112

3.5 Conclusion...............................................................................114

CHAPTER 4

TYING AND BUNDLING IN EU

COMPETITION LAW

4.1 Tying and Bundling in General...............................................119

4.1.1 Methods of Tying and Bundling Practices ....................120

4.1.2 Impacts of Tying and Bundling Practices:

Anticompetitive vs Procompetitive...............................121

4.1.3 Main Criteria of Tying and Bundling ............................124

4.1.3.1 Difference Between Tying and Tied Goods or

Services.............................................................124

4.1.3.2 The Existence of the Dominant Position of an

Undertaking in the Market ................................125

4.1.3.3 The Existence of Compulsion or Coercion against

Consumers.........................................................126

x

4.1.3.4 Foreclosure of Competition in the Market ........126

4.1.3.5 No Legal Justification for the Practice..............127

4.2 Tying and Bundling in Online Multi-Sided Platform

Markets...................................................................................127

4.2.1 Sides of Online Multi-Sided Platforms which Apply

Tying and Bundling Practices.......................................128

4.2.1.1 Consumer Definition in these Platform

Relationships.....................................................131

4.2.2 The Consumer Welfare Standard in Online Multi-Sided

Platforms which Apply Tying and Bundling Practice ..133

4.2.2.1 Price...................................................................135

4.2.2.2 Quality and Choice............................................139

4.2.2.3 Innovation..........................................................144

4.3 The Need for Effect-Based Approach to Analyse Tying and

Bundling Practices in Online Multi-Sided Platforms.............146

4.4 Conclusion...............................................................................149

CHAPTER 5

MOST-FAVOURED-NATION CLAUSES IN EU

COMPETITION LAW*

5.1 MFN Clauses in General .........................................................153

5.1.1 Impacts of MFN Clauses: Anticompetitive vs

Procompetitive ..............................................................154

5.1.2 The Difference Between Traditional MFN Clauses and

Platform MFN Clauses..................................................157

5.1.2.1 The Distinct Types of Platform MFN Clauses..158

5.2 The Validity of MFN Clauses in EU Competition Law..........159

5.3 MFN Clauses in Online Multi-Sided Platforms......................165

5.3.1 Sides of Online Multi-Sided Platforms which Include

MFN Clauses.................................................................165

5.3.1.1 Consumer Definition in these Platform

Relations ...........................................................168

5.3.2 The Consumer Welfare Standard in Online Multi-Sided

Platforms which Include MFNs ....................................169

5.3.2.1 Price...................................................................173

5.3.2.2 Quality and Choice............................................179

5.3.2.3 Innovation..........................................................183

xi

5.4 A Discussion on Whether the Free-Riding Defence Can be Used

to Justify MFNs ......................................................................184

5.5 Conclusion...............................................................................188

CHAPTER 6

THE NEED FOR NEW RULES AND TOOLS, AND THE

PROPOSED DMA AS A NEW INSTRUMENT IN EU

COMPETITION LAW

6.1 Consumer Welfare Oriented Competition Analysis in Online

Multi-Sided Platform Markets................................................193

6.2 The Need for New Rules and Tools for the Application of

Competition Law to Online Multi-Sided Platform Markets...195

6.2.1 New Approach to EU Competition Policy in Applying

EU Competition Law to Online Multi-Sided Platform

Markets..........................................................................201

6.2.1.1 Online MSP is a Distinct Business Model ........201

6.2.1.2 End-Users Should be Treated as Consumers in

Online MSP Relationships................................202

6.2.1.3 Case-by-Case Analysis of Practices of Online

MSPs is Needed ................................................203

6.2.1.4 The Practices and Behaviour of Not Only

Dominant Undertakings but Also Other

Undertakings Should be Considered.................203

6.2.2 The General Characteristics of the Proposed Digital

Services Act and Digital Markets Act and The Place of

the Consumer Welfare Standard Therein ......................205

6.2.2.1 Geo-Blocking in the DMA................................211

6.2.2.2 Tying and Bundling in the DMA ......................212

6.2.2.3 MFN Clauses in the DMA ................................213

6.3 Conclusion...............................................................................214

CHAPTER 7

FINAL CONCLUSION

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