Yapay Zekanın Ceza Sorumluluğu ve Kişilik Tartışmaları

Yayınevi: Yetkin Yayınları
Yazar: Berat ÇAMLICA
ISBN: 9786050511864
42,50 TL 50,00 TL

Adet

 
   0 yorum  |  Yorum Yap
Kitap Künyesi
Yazar Berat ÇAMLICA
Baskı Tarihi 2022/04
Baskı Sayısı 1
Boyut 16x24 cm (Standart Kitap Boyu)
Cilt Karton kapak
Sayfa Sayısı 93

Yapay Zekanın Ceza Sorumluluğu ve Kişilik Tartışmaları

Berat ÇAMLICA

İÇİNDEKİLER

TEŞEKKÜR...................................................................................vii

İÇİNDEKİLER...............................................................................ix

KISALTMALAR............................................................................xi

1.GİRİŞ ............................................................................................1

2. TEMEL KAVRAMLAR VE GENEL BİLGİLER....................3

2.1. ROBOT.................................................................................3

2.1.1. Kavram........................................................................3

2.1.2. Tarihsel Gelişim ..........................................................5

2.2. YAPAY ZEKA.....................................................................6

2.2.1. Kavram........................................................................6

2.2.2. Tarihsel Gelişim ........................................................ 10

2.2.2.1. Çimlenme Dönemi......................................... 10

2.2.2.2. Yapay Zekanın Doğuşu ve Gelişimi .............. 11

2.2.2.3. Yapay Zekayı Geliştirmenin Çukuru ve 

Yeniden Dirilişi ............................................. 12

2.2.3. Yapay Zeka Araştırmalarına Esas Bileşenler............. 13

2.2.3.1. Öğrenme ........................................................ 13

2.2.3.2. Muhakeme..................................................... 14

2.2.3.3. Problem Çözme ............................................. 15

2.2.3.4. Algılama........................................................ 16

2.2.3.5. Dil ................................................................. 18

2.3. YAPAY ZEKAYA İLİŞKİN ULUSAL ve 

ULUSLARARASI METİNLER ......................................... 19

2.3.1. Montreal Deklarasyonu ............................................. 23

2.3.2. Toronto Deklarasyonu ............................................... 25

2.3.3. Stanford Raporu......................................................... 26

2.3.4. Avrupa Birliği Hukuk İşleri Komitesi Raporu ........... 27

2.3.5. Avrupa Komisyonu Yapay Zekaya İlişkin Beyaz 

Kitap- Mükemmellik ve Güvene Avrupa 

Yaklaşımı ................................................................... 28

2.3.6. Avrupa Birliği Yapay Zeka Yasası Teklifi ................ 29

x

2.3.7. CAHAI- Yapay Zeka Ad Hoc Komitesi 

Çalışmaları ................................................................. 31

2.3.8. Güney Kore Robot Etiği Bildirgesi............................ 33

2.3.9. Birleşik Krallık Mühendislik ve Fiziksel Araştırma 

Konseyi Robotik İlkeleri ............................................ 34

2.3.10. Türkiye Ulusal Yapay Zeka Stratejisi 2021-2025 .... 35

3. CEZA HUKUKUNDA YAPAY ZEKA 

DEĞERLENDİRMESİ............................................................ 36

3.1. YAPAY ZEKANIN CEZA SORUMLULUĞU .................. 38

3.1.1. Ceza Sorumluluğun Tarihsel Gelişimi ...................... 39

3.1.2. Ceza Sorumluluğunun Temel İlkeleri ....................... 41

3.1.2.1. Kusur İlkesi ................................................. 41

3.1.2.2. Şahsilik İlkesi .............................................. 43

3.1.3. Türk Ceza Hukuku’ndan Yapay Zekanın Ceza 

Sorumluluğuna Bakış ................................................. 45

3.2. YAPAY ZEKANIN KİŞİLİK TARTIŞMALARI .............. 50

3.2.1. Yapay Zekanın Kişiliğine Muhalif Görüşler............ 52

3.2.2. Yapay Zekanın Kişiliğine İlişkin Görüşler .............. 56

3.2.2.1. Tüzel Kişilik Önerisi ..................................... 58

3.2.2.2. Elektronik Kişilik Önerisi.............................. 65

3.2.2.4. Köle Önerisi .................................................. 68

SONUÇ........................................................................................... 75

KAYNAKÇA ................................................................................. 81



Ankara 2021, s.173.

Buckland William Warwick, The Roman Law of Slavery: The 

Condition of The Slave in Private Law From Augustus to Justinian, 

Cambridge University Press, 1908.

Canpolat Can, Kusur İlkesi Işığında Mazeret Nedeni Olarak Zorlayıcı Cebir, Yetkin Yayınevi, Ankara 2016.

Chopra Samir, White Laurence F., A Legal Theory for Autonomous Artificial Agents, University of Michigan Press, 2018.

Crawford James, Brownlie’s Principles of Public International 

Law, 8th ed., Oxford University Press, 2012.

Cui Yadong, Artificial Intelligence and Judicial Modernization, 

Springer Singapor and Shanghai People’s Publishing House, 2020.

Dervanovic Dena, I, Inhuman Lawyer:Developing Artificial Intelligence in the Legal Profession, Robotics, AI and the Future of Law, 

Perspectives in Law, Business and Innovation, Marcelo C., Fenwick 

M, Forgó N. (Ed.)Springer Nature Singapour, 2018. 

82

Dönmezer Sulhi, Erman Sahir, Nazari ve Tatbiki Ceza Hukuku 

Genel Kısım, 1. Cilt, 14. 

Basım, Der Yayınları, İstanbul, 2016.

Dressler Joshua, Cases and Materials on Criminal Law, 2007.

Ersoy Çağlar, Robotlar, Yapay Zeka ve Hukuk, On İki Levha Yayıncılık, İstanbul 2018.

Flanagan Owen J., The Science of The Mind, 1-22, 2d Ed., 1991.

Gautier Philippe, The Reparation for Injuries Case Revisited :The 

Personality of The European Union, Max Planck Yearbook of United 

Nations Law, 2000. 

Genderen Robert van den Hoven van, Do We Need New Legal 

Personhood in the Age of Robots and AI?, Robotics, AI and Future of 

Law, Perspectives in Law, Business and Innovation, Marcelo C., 

Fenwick M, Forgó N. (Ed.), Springer Singapore, 2018. 

Hakeri Hakan, Ceza Hukuku Genel Hükümler, Adalet Yayınevi, 

Ankara 2019.

Hallevy Gabriel, Liability for Crimes Involving Artificial Intelligence Systems, Springer 

International Publishing Switzerland, 2015. 

Harris Michael C., Artificial Intelligence, Published of Marshall 

Cavendish Benchmark, New York, 2011.

Konar Amit, Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: Behavioral and Cognitive 

Modeling of the Human Brain, CRC Press, New York, 2000,.

Kreutzer Ralf T., Sirrenberg Marie, Understanding Artificial Intelligence, Management 

for Professionals, Springer Nature Switzerland, 2020.

Kurzweil Ray, The Age of Spiritual Machines: When Computers 

Exceed Human 

İntelligence. Penguin, 2000.

Kurzweil Ray, The Singularity is Near, Penguin Books Published, 

2005.

83

Locke John, Two Treatises of Government, Binker North Published,

https://www.yorku.ca/comninel/courses/3025pdf/Locke.pdf; (Erişim Tarihi: 04.03.2021)

Minsky Marvin, The Society of Mind. Simon and Schuster, New 

York, 1985.

Moore Michael, Act And Crime: The Philosophy of Action And 

Its Implications for

Criminal Law, Published to Oxford Scholarship Online, 1993.

Nakashima Hideyuki, AI as Complex Information Processing. 

Minds and Machines, 1999.

Nath Rajakishore., Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence: A Critique of the Mechanistc 

Theory of Mind, Universal-Publishers, Boca Raton/Florida, 2009.

Özbek Veli Özer, Doğan Koray, Bacaksız Pınar, Türk Ceza Hukuku Genel Hükümler, 

11. Baskı, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara 2020.

Özgenç İzzet, Türk Ceza Hukuku Genel Hükümler, 16. Baskı, Seçkin Yayıncılık, Ankara, 2020.

Pagallo Ugo, The Laws of Robots: Crimes, Contracts and Torts, 

Springer Netherlands, 2013. 

Pagallo Ugo, Corrales Marcelo, Fenwick Mark and Forgó Nikolaus, The Rise of Robotics 

& AI: Technological Advances & Normative Dilemmas, Robotics, 

AI and the Future of Law, Perspectives in Law, Business and Innovation, Marcelo C., Fenwick M, Forgó N. (Ed.), Springer Singapore, 

2018.

Revolidis Ioannis, Dahi Alan, The Peculiar Case of the Mushroom 

Picking Robot: ExtraContractual Liability in Robotics, Robotics, AI and the Future of 

Law, Perspectives in Law, Business and Innovation, Marcelo C., 

Fenwick M, Forgó N. (Ed.), Springer Singapore, 2018.

84

Russel Stuart J., Norvig Peter, Artificial Intelligence: A Modern 

Approach, published by Pearson (3d ed. 2010).

Searle John R., Minds Brains and Science, Harvard University 

Press, Thirteen Printing, 2003.

Simon Phil, Too Big to Ignore: Business Case for Big Data, John 

Wiley & Sons, Incorporated, 2013.

Storrs Hall J., Beyond AI: Creating The Conscience of The Machine, Published Prometheus, 2007.

Şahin Cumhur, Göktürk Neslihan, Ceza Muhakemesi Hukuku-I, 

Seçkin Yayınevi, Ankara 2019, s.31.

Töngür Ali Rıza, Çetintürk Ekrem, Ceza Hukuku Genel Hükümler, 

Adalet Yayınevi, Ankara 2020.

Turing Alan, Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Mind, LIX 

(236), Ekim 1950, 

433-460, doi:10.1093/mind/LIX.236.433. (Erişim Tarihi: 

01.12.2020).

Wang Pei, On the Working Definition of Intelligence. Technical 

Report 94, Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Indiana 

University, 1995.

Zafer Hamide, Ceza Hukuku Genel Hükümler TCK m.1-75, 7. 

Bası, Beta Yayınevi, İstanbul 2019.

Zou Jinming, Han Yi, So Sung-Sau, Overview of Artificial Neural 

Networks, Artificial Neural Networks Methods and Applications, David L. Livingstone (Ed.), Humana Press, 2009.

85

Süreli Yayınlar

Akbilek Mehlika, Teknolojinin Pandora Kutusu: Robotların Hukuki Kişilikleri(!) ve 

Hukuki Sorumlulukları, Beykent Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi 

Dergisi, Cilt:3, Sayı:6, Aralık 2017.

Atalay Muhammet, Çelik Enes, Büyük Veri Analizinde Yapay 

Zekâ ve Makine 

Öğrenmesi Uygulamaları, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Sosyal 

Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi, Cilt 9, Sayı 22, 2017.

Aydemir Melisa, Yapay Zekalı Robotların Ceza Sorumluluklarının 

Araştırılması, Suç ve Ceza Hukuku Dergisi, Sayı:4, 2018.

Bozkurt Gülnihal, Eski Hukuk Sistemlerinde Kölelik, 

https://doi.org/10.1501/Hukfak_0000000803, (Erişim Tarihi: 

12.03.2021)

Bozkurt Yüksel, Armağan Ebru, Robot Hukuku, Türkiye Adalet 

Akademisi Dergisi, Yıl:7, Sayı: 29, Ocak 2017.

Calo Ryan. Robotics and the Lessons of Cyberlaw, California Law 

Review, Vol:103-513, 

2015, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm? abstract_ 

id=2402972 (Erişim Tarihi: 10.12.2020)

Caşın Mesut Hakkı, Al Dursun, Başkır Nur Dinemis, Yapay Zeka 

ve Robotların Eylemlerinden Kaynaklanan Cezai Sorumluluk Sorunu,

Ankara Barosu Dergisi, Cilt:79, Sayı:2021/1. 

Doğan Koray, Sürücüsüz Araçlar, Robotik Cerrahi, Endüstriyel 

Robotlar ve Cezai Sorumluluk, Dokuz Eylül Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, 

Prof. Dr. Durmuş Tezcan’a 

Armağan, C.21, Özel Sayı 2019.

Du-Harpur X., Watt F.M,.Lynch M.D., Luscombe N.M., What is 

AI- Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Dermatology, British Journal of Dermatology, 2020.

86

Dülger Volkan Murat, “Yapay Zekalı Varlıkların Hukuk Dünyasına Yansıması: Bu Varlıkların Hukuki Statüsü Nasıl Belirlenmeli?”, 

Terazi Hukuk Dergisi, Cilt:13, Sayı:142, 2018.

Easterbrook Frank H., Fischel Daniel R., Limited Liability and the 

Corporation, The University of Chicago Law Review, 52(1), 1985. 

https://chicagounbound. uchicago.edu/ cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article= 

4386&context=uclrev (Erişim Tarihi: 02.02.2021)

Ebers Martin,.Hoch Veronica.R.S., Rosenkranz Frank, Ruschemeier Hannah, Steinrötter Björn, The European Commission’s Proposal 

for an Artificial Intelligence Act—A Critical Assessment by Members 

of the Robotics and AI Law Society (RAILS), Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal, 4(4), 2021, ss. 589–603, 

https://doi.org/10.3390/j4040043 (Erişim Tarihi: 15.01.2022)

Eren Selahattin, Roma Hukukunda Köle Mülkiyetinin Sınırları, 

Marmara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Hukuk Araştırmaları Dergisi, 

C. 23, S.3, https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/469341

(Erişim Tarihi: 13.03.2021)

Fagundes, Dave, What We Talk About When We Talk About Persons: The Language of 

a Legal Fiction, Harvard Law Review, 114(6), 2001, https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=921133 (Erişim Tarihi: 

13.03.2021)

Fırat Oktay Zihni, Fırat S. Ümit, Endüstri 4.0 Yolculuğunda 

Trendler ve Robotlar, İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 

Cilt: 46, Sayı: 2, Kasım 2017. 

Hallevy Gabriel, The Criminal Liability of Artificial İntelligence 

Entities- from Science 

Fiction to Legal Social Control, Akron Intellectual Property Journal: Vol 4: Iss 2: Article 1, March 2016, https://ideaexchange.uakron.edu/akronintellectualproperty/vol4/iss2/1 (Erişim Tarihi: 25. 12.

2020)

Ivanovic Aleksandar R., Pavlovic Zoran S., Involving of Artificial 

Intelligence in Committing a Crime as a Challenge to the Criminal 

Law of the Republic of Serbia, Journal of Eastern-European Criminal 

Law, Vol. 2018, Issue 2 (2018). 

87

John C. Coffee Jr., "No Soul to Damn: No Body to Kick": An Unscandalized Inquiry into 

the Problem of Corporate Punishment, 79 MICH. L. REV., 1981. 

https://scholarship. law.columbia.edu/cgi/ viewcontent.cgi?article= 

1564&context=faculty_scholarship, (Erişim Tarihi: 12.02.2021)

Kara Kılıçarslan Seda, Yapay Zekanın Hukuki Statüsü ve Hukuki 

Kişiliği Üzerine Tartışmalar, Yıldırım Beyazıt Hukuk Dergisi, Yıl:4, 

Sayı:2019/2, 

Karaaslan Muzaffer, Peculium’un Roma Ekonomik Hayatındaki 

Rolü, D.E.Ü. Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, Prof. Dr. Şeref ERTAŞ’a Armağan, C. 19, Özel Sayı-2017. 

Köken Enes, Yapay Zekanın Cezai Sorumluluğu, Türkiye Adalet 

Akademisi Dergisi, Yıl 12, Sayı: 47, 2021, ss. 247-286, https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/1884750 (Erişim Tarihi: 15. 02.

2022)

Lerouge Jean Francois, The Use of Electronic Agents Questioned 

Under Contractual Law: Suggested Solutions on a European and American Level, John Marshall Journal of Computer and Information 

Law, C.18, S. 2, 2000, https://repository.law.uic.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1184&context=jitpl (Erişim Tarihi: 28.11.2021)

Levy Lawrence B., Bell Suzanne Y., Software Product Liability: 

Understanding and Minimizing the Risks, High Technology Law Journal Vol 5:1, 1990 https://lawcat.berkeley.edu/record/1113700/files/fulltext.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi:20.01.2021)

McGinnis John O., Wasick Steven, Law’s Algorithm, Florida Law 

Review, 66(3), 2015, https://scholarship.law.ufl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1194&context=flr (Erişim Tarihi: 15.03. 2021)

Oraegbunam Ikenga K.E, Uguru Eme Uguru, Artificial Intelligence Entities And Criminal Liability: A Nigerian Jurisprudential Diagnosis, African Journal of Criminal Law and Jurispudence, Vol.3, 

2018, http://journals.ezenwaohaetorc.org/index.php/AFJCLJ/article/ 

view/ 501/464 (Erişim Tarihi: 02.11.2020)

Özen Muharrem, Türk Ceza Kanunu Tasarısının Tüzel Kişilerin 

Ceza Sorumluluğuna İlişkin Hükümlerine Bir Bakış, Ankara Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, C. 52, S.1, 2003, ss. 63-88, s.69, 

88

https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/629004 (Erişim Tarihi: 06.02.2022)

Perkins Rollin M., Knowledge as a Mens Rea Requirements, Hastings Law Journal, Volume:29-5, https://repository.uchastings. edu/ 

hastings_law_journal/vol29/iss5/7/ (Erişim Tarihi:01.01.2021)

Richards Neil M., King Jonathan H., Big Data Ethics, Wake Forest Law Review, 49, 2014,http://www.informatica.uniroma2.it/upload/2017/IA2/RIchards%20and%20King%20BigDataEthics.pdf

(Erişim Tarihi: 26.01.2021)

Simmler Monika, Markwalder Nora, Guilty Robots? Rethinking 

The Nature of Culpability and Legal Personhood in an Age of Artificial Intelligence, Criminal Law Forum, Sayı: 30, 2019, ss.1-31, 

https://doi.org/10.1007/s10609-018-9360-0 (Erişim Tarihi:14.01.2022)

Solum Lawrence B, Legal Personhood for Artificial İntelligence, 

70 N. C. L. REV. 1231, 1992, https://scholarship.law.unc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3447&context=nclr (Erişim Tarihi: 

01.01.2021)

Stahl Bernd Carsten, Responsible computers? A Case for Ascribing Quasiresponsibility to Computers Independent of Personhood or 

Agency. Ethics and Information Technology C.8, S.4, 2006.

Stanila Laura, Artificial Intelligence and Human Rights: A Challenging Approach on the Issue of Equailty, Journal of Eastern-European Criminal Law, 2018(2).

Szabolcsi Robert, The Birth of the Term Robot, Advances in Military Technology, 1 June 2014, 9(1) ss.117-128.

Sutrop Margit, Should We Trust Artificial Intelligence?, Trames: 

A Journal of the Humanities & Social Sciences. 2019, Vol. 23 Issue 4, 

p499-522, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/337458067_Should_we_trust_artificial_intelligence (Erişim Tarihi:22.09.2020)

Toroslu Nevzat, Cezai Sorumluluğun Gelişimi, Yargıtay Dergisi, 

Sayı:1-2, 1990.

Uyar Tevfik, Ya Yapay Ya Ahlak?, İnsanlaşan Makinalar ve Yapay Zeka İTÜ Vakfı Dergisi, Sayı:75, Ocak-Mart 2017.

89

Vladeck David C., Machines Without Principals: Liability Rules 

and Artificial Intelligence, 89 Wash. L.R. 117, 2014. https://digitalcommons.law.uw.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article= 4800 &context=wlr (Erişim Tarihi:04.01.2021)

Wein Leon E., Responsibility of Intelligent Artifacts: Toward an 

Automation Jurisprudence, Harvard Journal of Law & Technology, 

6(1), 1992. 

Wickremasinghe Chanaka, Recent Cases: Difference Relating to 

Immunity From Legal Process of a Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights, International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 49(3), 2000, doi:10.1017/S0020589300064484, (Cambridge 

University Press, Erişim Tarihi: 31.01.2021)

Yanisky-Ravid Shlomit, Generating Rembrandt: Artificial Intelligence, Copyright, and Accountability in the 3A Era: The Human-like 

Authors Are Already Here: A New Model, Michigan State Law Review, no. 4 (2017). 

Diğer Yayınlar

Anayasa Mahkemesi, 19.02.2009 T., 2006/72 E., 2009/24 K., R.G. 

25.06.2009 – 27269.

Artificial Intelligence and Life in 2030, One Hundred Year Study 

On Artifıcial Intelligence, Report Of The 2015 Study Panel, September 2016, https://ai100.stanford.edu/sites/g/files/sbiybj9861/f/ai_100_report_0831fnl.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 

25.03.2021)

Beck Susanne, Intelligent Agents and Criminal Law- Negligence, 

Diffusion of Liability 

and Electronic Personhood, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0921889016305450, (Erişim Tarihi: 13.02.2021)

Bertolini Andrea, Robots as Products: The Case for a Realistic 

Analysis of Robotic Applications and Liability Rules, 2013, 

90

https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2410754 (Erişim Tarihi: 21.10.2020).

Boyle James, Brookings Inst. Endowed By Their Creator? The Future of Constitutional 

Personhood, 2011, https://www.brookings.edu/research/endowedby-their-creator-the-future-of-constitutional-personhood/ (Erişim Tarihi: 30.12.2020).

Bryson Joanna J., Diamantis Mihailis E., Grant Thomas D., Of, 

For and By The People: The Legal Lacuna Of Synthetic Persons, 

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10506-017-9214-9, (Erişim 

Tarihi: 17.12.2020)

Committee on Legal Affairs, with recommendations to the Commission on Civil Law Rules on Robotics (2015/2103(INL)), Draft Report, 2016, https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/JURIPR-582443_EN.pdf?redirect (Erişim Tarihi: 27.03.2021)

Communication From The Commission To The European Parliament, The European Council, The Council, The European Economic 

And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions, Artificial Intelligence for Europe, COM (2018) 237 final, Brussels, 

25.04.2018, https://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2018/EN/COM-2018-237-F1-EN-MAIN-PART1.PDF (Erişim Tarihi: 30.09.2020)

Copeland Brian Jack, Artificial İntelligence, https://www.britannica.com/technology/artificial-intelligence, (Erişim Tarihi: 

16.11.2020).

Council Of Europe, Algorithms And Human Rights. Study On The 

Human Rights Dimensions of Automated Data Processing Techniques 

and Possible Regulatory Implications, DGI (2017)12, Prepared by the 

Committee of Experts on Internet Intermediaries, (MSI-NET) 

https://edoc.coe.int/en/internet/7589-algorithms-and-human-rightsstudy-on-the-human-rights-dimensions-of-automated-data-processing-techniques-and-possible-regulatory-implications.html# (Erişim 

Tarihi: 23.03.2021)

91

Çetin Selin, “Yapay Zeka ve Hukuk İle İlgili Güncel Tartışmalar”, 

İstanbul, Ankara ve İzmir Baroları Çalıştay Raporu (Yapay Zeka Çağında Hukuk), 2019, https://www.istanbulbarosu.org.tr/files/docs/yapayzekacagindahukuk.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 27.08.2021)

Değirmenci Olgun, Yapay Zeka ve Ceza Hukuku Sorumluluğu, 

https://www.academia.edu/42794137/Yapay_Zeka_ve_Ceza_Sorumlulu%C4%9Fu (Erişim Tarihi: 29.10.2020)

Dennet Daniel C., Cognitive Wheels: The Frame Problem of AI, 

https://folk.idi.ntnu.no/gamback/teaching/TDT4138/dennett84.pdf

(Erişim Tarihi: 20.03.2021)

European Commission Whıte Paper “Artificial Intelligence European Approach Excellence And Trust”, 19.02.2020, https://thedigitalhealthsociety.com/european-commission-white-paper-artificial-intelligence-european-approach-excellence-and-trust/ (Erişim Tarihi: 

09.07.2021)

Karlsson Claussen Matilda, Artificial İntelligence and the External 

Element of the Crime An Analysis of The Liability Problem, Örebro 

University, 2017, https://www.divaportal.org/smash/get/ diva2: 

1115160/FULLTEXT01.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi: 12.12.2020)

Katz Andrew, Intelligent Agents and Internet Commerce in Ancient Rome, 2010, https://www.scl.org/articles/1095-intelligentagents-and-internet-commerce-in-ancientrome (Erişim Tarihi: 

13.03.2021)

Kwon Okyu, Very Simple Statistical Evidence That AlphaGo Has 

Exceed Human Limits in Playing Go Game, https://arxiv. org/ 

pdf/2002.11107.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 05.12.2020)

Labruto Roberto, A Green Paper on Legal Issues in Robotics, 

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/310167745_A_green_paper_on_legal_issues_in_robotics, (Erişim Tarihi: 08.09.2020)

Mccarthy John, What Is Artificial Intelligence?, Nov. 12, 2007, 

http://jmc.stanford.edu/articles/whatisai/whatisai.pdf (Erişim Tarihi: 

29.09.2020)

Montreal Declaration A Responsible Development Of Artifıcial 

Intelligence 2018, https://www.montrealdeclaration-responsibleai. 

com/ the-declaration (Erişim Tarihi: 27.03.2021)

92

Regulation Of The European Parliament And Of The Council Laying Down Harmonised Rules On Artifıcial Intelligence (Artifıcial Intelligence Act) And Amending Certain Union Legislative Acts, 

21.04.2021, https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/? uri= 

CELEX%3A52021PC0206 (Erişim Tarihi:15.01.2022)

Smuha Nathalie A., Ahmed-Rengers Emma, Harkens Adam, Li 

Wenlong, MacLaren James, Piselli Riccardo,Yeung Karen, How the 

EU Can Achieve Legally Trustworthy AI: A Response to the European Commission’s Proposal for an Artificial Intelligence Act, 

2021, https://ssrn.com/abstract=3899991 (Erişim Tarihi: 15.01.2022)

South Korean Robot Ethics Charter 2012,

https://akikok012um1.wordpress.com/south-korean-robot-ethicscharter-2012/ (Erişim Tarihi: 01.09.2021)

Spiegeleire Stephan De, Mass Matthijs, Sweijs Tim, Artificial İntelligence And The Future Defense: Strategic Implications for Small 

– And Medium – Sized Force Providers, The Hague Center for Strategic Studies, 2017, https://hcss.nl/sites/default/files/files/reports/Artificial%20Intelligence%20and%20the%20Future%20of%20Defense.pdf, (Erişim Tarihi: 19.01.2021)

Stanila Laura, Living in the Future: New Actors in the Field of 

Criminal Law- Artificial Intelligence, https://doi. org/ 10.22364/ 

iscflul.7.2.24, (Erişim Tarihi: 25.12.2020)

The Toronto Declaration: Protecting The Right To Equality and 

Non-Discrimination in Machine Learning Systems, 2018, 

https://www.torontodeclaration.org/ (Erişim Tarihi: 27.03.2021)

Treccani Carloalberto, The Brain, The Artificial Neural Network 

and The Snake: Why We See What We See, 2020,

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00146-020-01065-0 (Erişim Tarihi: 

20.11.2021)

United States v. Allegheny Bottling Company, 695 F.Supp. 856 

(1988), https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/ FSupp/ 

695/ 856/2346182/

Yao Y. Y., Zhong Ning, Liu Jiming, Ohsuga Setsuo, Web Intelligence (WI) Research Challenges and Trends in the New Information 

Age, In: Web Intelligence: Research and Development, First Asia-Pacific Conference, WI 2001, Maebahi City, Japan, October 23-26, 

93

2001, Springer, ss. 1-17, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/226966211_Web_Intelligence_WI_Research_Challenges_and_Trends_in_the_New_Information_Age (Erişim Tarihi: 

09.12.2020)

Zarsvnik Ales, Criminal Justice, Artificial Intelligence Systems, 

and Human Rights, ERA Forum, 2020. https://doi. org/10. 

1007/s12027-020-00602-0 (Erişim Tarihi: 07.07.2020)

Zimmerman, Evan, Machine Minds: Frontiers in Legal Personhood, 2015, https://ssrn.com/abstract=2563965 (Erişim Tarihi: 

15.10.2020)

https://rm.coe.int/cahai-2020-23-final-eng-feasibility-study-

/1680a0c6da (Erişim Tarihi:06.02.2022)

İnternet Kaynakları 

http://www.worldcourts.com/icj/eng/decisions/1949.04.11_reparation_for_injuries.htm

http://www.uniset.ca/other/cs5/1989Ch72.html

https://legal.un.org/riaa/cases/vol_VI/173-190_Cayuga.pdf

https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/15/1

https://www.echr.coe.int/documents/convention_tur.pdf

https://epsrc.ukri.org/research/ourportfolio/themes/engineering/activities/principlesofrobotics/

https://sozluk.gov.tr/

https://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2021/08/20210820-22.pdf 

https://www.coe.int/en/web/artificialintelligence/cahai#{%2266693378%22:[],%2266693418%22:[]

Yorum Yap

Lütfen yorum yazmak için oturum açın ya da kayıt olun.
İlgili Yayınlar