Transfer Of Risk in International Sales Contracts Under The CIGS, Incoterms® And English Law

(United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods) / (International Commercial Terms)
Yayınevi: Yetkin Yayınları
Yazar: Hamit MELEN
ISBN: 9786050509489
170,00 TL 200,00 TL


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Kitap Künyesi
Yazar Hamit MELEN
Baskı Tarihi 2021/09
Baskı Sayısı 1
Boyut 16x24 cm (Standart Kitap Boyu)
Cilt Karton kapak
Sayfa Sayısı 83

In the international sale of goods risk is an important concept that should not be underestimated. This is because the transfer of the sold goods from the buyer to the seller does not involve a short and easy process. During this process, the goods could be damagedlost. Despite the contract of sale, the parties may disagree who will bear the risk when the goods are lost damaged. Moreover, in the international sale of goods the transition of risk differs in different legal systems. it is therefore important to fırst understand what the risk is and then determine how and when it passes to the buyer in the legal systems involved. Besides, there is benefıt in examining whether the obligations of the parties arising from the sales contract affect the transfer of risk. Knowing how risk is passed can prevent disputes in international sales law.

This paper will examine in detail the passage of risk in international goods sales under CISG, Incoterms® and English law. First, a general defınition of the risk will be offered, and general information will be given about how it transfers to the buyer. Then the concept of risk will be examined, fırst under CISG and then under the international commercial terms issued by the ICC, and how it is incorporated in international sales contracts will be discussed. Since English law applies SGA 1979 to international sales, how risk passes will also be examined under that act. Finally I examine the consequences of the transition of risk in these three legal systems, and the convenience and difficulties involved.

Konu Başlıkları
The Concept Of Transfer Of Risk
Transfer Of Risk Under The Incoterms® And CISG
Transfer Of Risk İn English Law




Chapter I: Introduction 13

Chapter II: The concept of transfer of risk 17

1. Introduction 17

2. What is meant by “risk” in international sales contracts? 17

3. When does risk pass from seller to buyer? 19

4. Effects of transfer/passing of risk 23

Chapter III: Transfer of risk under the Incoterms® and CISG 25

1. Introduction 25

2. Risk under the CISG 25

2. a. The scope of risk transfer under the CISG 25

2. b. When does risk pass to the buyer? 26

2. b. i. Consequence of the passing of risk – Article 66 29

2. b. ii. Passing of risk in cases involving carriage of goods – Article 67 32

Who is the carrier, what is carriage? 32

The term “handing over” 34

The exact moment that risk passes 35

The “particular place” rule 36

Unascertained goods 37

Comment 38

2. b. iii. Passing of risk relating to goods sold in transit – Article 68 39

2. b. iv. Passing of risk in residual cases – Article 69 41

2. b. v. Passing of risk in non-accidental cases – Article 70 44

3. The moment that risk passes under Incoterms® 45

3. a. What are Incoterms®? 45

3. b. The allocation of risk in the INCOTERMS® 2020 48

3. c. The Incoterms® used most commonly in international sales 49

3. c. i. FOB (“Free on Board”) 49

3. c. ii. CIF (“Cost Insurance Freight”) 51

3. c. iii. CPT (“Carriage Paid To”) 52

3. c. iv. DDP (“Delivered Duty Paid”) 53

4. Incorporating Incoterms® into a contract under CISG 55

4. a. The CISG rules that allow Incoterms® to be used in a contract. 55

4. b. How to incorporate Incoterms® in a contract 55

4. c. The result of incorporating Incoterms® in a contract under CISG 56

Chapter IV: Transfer of risk in English law 57

1. Introduction 57

2. How does English law describe risk? 57

3. When risk passes in English law 59

3. a. The moment or event when risk passes 59

3. b. Exceptions to the general rule 61

3. b. i. Express provision 61

3. b. ii. Delay in delivery of the goods 63

3. b. iii. Property might be transferred to the buyer before the risk 64

3. c. Unascertained goods 66

4. Trade terms that can be used in a contract of sale under English law 68

4. a. Which trade terms? 68

4. b. CIF (cost insurance freight) contracts 69

4. c. FOB (free on board) contracts 70

Chapter V: Conclusion 73


Primary Sources

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