Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nin Yönetim Yapısı

Yayınevi: Yetkin Yayınları
Yazar: Bilge UZ
ISBN: 9786050511857
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Amerika Birleşik Devletleri'nin Yönetim Yapısı

Av. Dr. Bilge UZ


İÇİNDEKİLER ................................................................................ vii

TABLOLAR .......................................................................................xi

GÖRSELLER....................................................................................xv

KISALTMALAR ........................................................................... xvii

SUNUŞ................................................................................................19

ÖNSÖZ...............................................................................................21

GİRİŞ .................................................................................................23

BİRİNCİ BÖLÜM

ABD YÖNETİM SİSTEMİNİN 

KURULUŞU VE TEMELLERİ

I.1. ABD Yönetim Sisteminin Tarihsel Perspektifi .....................30

I.1.1. Bağımsızlık Bildirgesi: İngiliz Monarşi Yönetimine 

Başkaldırı.....................................................................30

I.1.2. Federal Anayasanın Kabulü ve Yeni Bir Devletin 

Doğuşu ......................................................................41

I.1.3. ABD Yönetim Geleneğinin Oluşması ve Anti-Devletçi 

Yaklaşımın Etkisi ........................................................53

I.2. ABD Yönetim Sisteminin Anayasal Özellikler Açısından 

İncelenmesi ............................................................................86

I.2.1. Federal Anayasanın Değiştirilmesi: Yöntem ve 

Etkileri ......................................................................89

I.2.2. Anayasal Güçler Ayrılığı İlkesinin İşlevi: Denetim ve 

Denge Mekanizması ....................................................94

I.2.3. Anayasal İlkeler Temelinde Yönetsel Gücün 

Parçalanması ve Dağılımı............................................98

I.3. Siyasal ve Yönetsel Kültür: Sesini Yükseltebilen ve 

Yönetime Duyuran bir Toplum............................................101

I.3.1. Çoğulcu Kültürün Kamu Politikası Yapımındaki Rolü 

ve Karar Alma Süreçlerine Etkileri ...........................114

I.3.2. Kamu Politikası Yapımı Sürecinin Aşamaları ve 

İşleyişinin Örneklendirilmesi ....................................119

viii

İKİNCİ BÖLÜM

FEDERAL YÖNETİMİN YAPISI 

VE İŞLEYİŞİ

II.1. Yönetsel Katmanlar Arasında Güç Paylaşımını Sağlayan Bir 

Araç: Federalizm..................................................................127

II.1.1. Federalizm Kavramı ve Örgütlenmedeki Değişim ...127

II.1.2. New York Eyaletinin Pandemi ile Mücadelesi: ABD 

Federal Sisteminin İşleyişi Açısından Güncel Bir 

Örnek ................................................................... 135

II.2. ABD Federal Sisteminde Yasama Fonksiyonunun İşleyişi: 

Kongre .................................................................................138

II.2.1. Yönetsel Gücün Dengeli Dağılımda Kongrenin Rolü ve 

Önemi ....................................................................139

II.2.2. Temsili Demokrasinin Sembolü: Kongrenin 

Yapılanması...............................................................143

II.2.3. Amerikan Toplumunu Oluşturan Çeşitliliğin Temsili: 

Kongre Üyelerin Dağılımı.........................................155

II.2.4. Ağır İşleyen ve Karmaşık Bir Mekanizma: Yasama 

Sürecinde Kanunların Yapımı ...................................164

II.3. Federal Yönetimi Harekete Geçiren Güç Olarak Yürütme 

Organı ..................................................................................168

II.3.1. ABD Başkanı: Güçlü ve Sınırlandırılmış Yetkilerle 

Donatılmış Bir Aktör.................................................170

II.3.2. Başkanın Seçimi ve Görev Süresi Açısından Anayasal 

Denge Mekanizmalarının İşleyişi..............................173

II.3.2.1. Başkanın Görev ve Yetkileri........................180

II.3.2.2. Başkanlık Örgütünün Yapılanması ve Politika 

Yapımındaki Rolü ......................................189

II.3.3. Federal Bürokrasinin Yönetsel Birimler ve Federal 

Kurumlar Açısından İşleyişi......................................237

II.3.3.1. Federal Bürokrasinin Gelişimi ve Siyasi 

Etkilerden Arındırılması.............................242

II.3.3.2. Federal Bürokrasiyi Oluşturan Yönetsel 

Yapılar ve Özellikleri .................................249

II.3.3.3. Federal Bürokrasinin Temel Bileşenleri......258

II.4. Güçlü Bir Yönetim Sisteminin Temeli Olarak Yargı 

Organı ..................................................................................262

ix

II.4.1. Yargı Sisteminin Federal Düzeydeki İşleyişi............262

II.4.2. En Tehlikesiz Güç: Yüksek Mahkemenin Yapısı ve 

İşleyişi ....................................................................270

II.4.3. Yüksek Mahkeme Kararlarının Politika Yapımındaki 

Rolü ....................................................................279

II.5. Kuvvetler Arası İlişkilerin Bir Analizi: Kongre Binası Baskını 

Örnek Olayı..........................................................................283

ÜÇÜNCÜ BÖLÜM

EYALETLER VE YEREL YÖNETİMLERİN 

YAPISI VE İŞLEYİŞİ

III.1. Eyaletlerin Yönetimi ve Eyalet Anayasalarının Özellikleri.308

III.1.1. Sistemin Laboratuvarı: Eyalet Düzeyinde Yasama 

Fonksiyonu ................................................................313

III.1.2. Eyalet Düzeyinde Yürütme Fonksiyonunun İşleyişi ve 

Eyalet Valileri............................................................315

III.1.3. Normlar Hiyerarşisi ve Eyalet Düzeyindeki Yargı 

Fonksiyonu ................................................................318

III.2. Yerel Yönetimlerin Özellikleri ve Dillon Kuralının Etkisi..323

III.2.1. Yerel Yönetimler Düzeyinde Örgütlenme Türleri...326

III.2.1.1. Bölge Yönetimlerinin Yapılanması ve 

Yetkileri......................................................328

III.2.1.2. İdari ve Mali Özerkliğe Sahip Yapılanmalar: 

Özel Bölge Yönetimleri..............................333

III.2.1.3. Belediye Yönetimlerinin Yapılanması ve 

Eyalet Yönetimleri ile İlişkisi.....................338

III.2.2. Columbia Federal Bölgesinin Yönetimi Üzerinden 

Yapısal Bir Örneklendirme........................................342

III.2.2. Metropoliten Alanların Yönetimi ............................348

III.2.2.1. Eyaletlerin Şekillendirdiği Yönetim Birimleri: 

Kentlerin Yönetimi.....................................350

III.2.2.2. Doğrudan Demokrasinin Bir Uygulaması: 

Kasabaların Yönetimi.................................353

III.3. Yönetimler Arası İlişkiler Yönünden ABD Yönetim 

Sisteminin Değerlendirilmesi ..............................................357

SONUÇ.............................................................................................377

KAYNAKLAR ................................................................................389

x

EKLER.............................................................................................421

Ek 1. Başkanlık Seçimlerine Katılım ve Politika Sorunlarının 

Desteklenme Oranlarının Karşılaştırması............................421

Ek 2. Seçmen Verileri Bazında 1980-2016 Başkanlık Seçimleri 

Karşılaştırması .....................................................................422

Ek 3. Yüksek Mahkeme Yargıç Sayılarının 1789 Yılından 

Günümüze Değişimi ............................................................424

Ek 4. Yüksek Mahkeme Kararları ve Kamuoyu Görüşleri ...........425

Ek 5. Etnik Köken ve Diğer Farklılıklar Bazında Federal İş Gücü 

Dağılımı ...............................................................................426

Ek 6. Kamu Düzeninin Korunması ve İfade Özgürlüğüne Atfedilen

Önem Düzeyi Kıyası............................................................427

Ek 7. Siyasi Parti Çoğunlukları Bazında ABD Başkanları ve 

Kongre (1993-2018) ............................................................429


Oldukça karmaşık ve parçalı bir yapı sergileyen Amerika Birleşik 

Devletleri federal yönetim sistemi, örgütlenmesi ve gelişmişlik ölçüsü 

dikkate alındığında, incelemeye değer bir alan olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Amerikan yönetim sistemi, kolonyal dönemden günümüze,

tarihsel, toplumsal, politik, sosyo-ekonomik ve diğer kendine özgü faktörlerin etkisiyle oluşmuş bir tür yönetsel icat olarak kabul edilebilir. 

Kitapta Amerikan yönetim sistemi, üç temel kısım altında, kuruluşundan günümüze detaylı olarak incelenmektedir ve anayasal yapının işleyişi federal ve eyaletler düzeyinde ayrı ayrı anlatılmaktadır. Bu kitap

kaynağını, öncesinde doktora tezi olarak hazırlanan çalışmadan almaktadır. 

Bu çalışmanın tez olarak ortaya çıkmasına ve sonra kitap haline getirilmesinde büyük katkıları olan, çalışmaya ilham veren tez danışmanım Prof. Dr. Can Umut Çiner’e, değerli görüşleri ile bu çalışmanın 

gelişmesini sağlayan hocalarım Prof. Dr. Taşansu Türker, Doç. Dr. Tekin Avaner ile Doç. Dr. Ozan Zengin’e içten teşekkürlerimi sunarım.

Çalışma sürecinde benden desteğini asla esirgemeyen aileme, çalışmalarıyla bu kitaba akademik katkı sağlayan tüm hocalarıma, SelimeYıldırım, Elifcan Altınışık ve Duygu Bankoğlu başta olmak üzere arkadaşlarıma ve bu kitabın okuyuculara ulaşmasını sağlayan Yetkin Yayınevi

çalışanlarına ayrıca teşekkür ederim. Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’nin 

Yönetim Yapısı başlıklı bu kitabın, inceleme alanına katkı sağlamasını 

ve okuyuculara faydalı olmasını dilerim.

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