Presİdentİal Decrees ( Türkiye - Usa )

Yayınevi: Yetkin Yayınları
Yazar: Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU
ISBN: 9786050511178
46,75 TL 55,00 TL

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Kitap Künyesi
Yazar Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU
Baskı Tarihi 2022/02
Baskı Sayısı 1
Boyut 16x24 cm (Standart Kitap Boyu)
Cilt Karton kapak
Sayfa Sayısı 135

Presİdentİal Decrees ( Türkiye - Usa )

Prof. Dr. Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU

CONTENTS

FOREWORD TO THE FIRST EDITION.............................................I

CONTENTS...........................................................................................III

FIRST PART

PRESIDENTIAL DECREES AND DISCUSSIONS

I. INTRODUCTION............................................................................. 1

II. TOPICS REGARDING PRESIDENTIAL DECREES...................... 2

A. LEGAL QUALITY OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREES.............. 2

B. TURKISH GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY'S 

SUPERVISION OF PRESIDENTIAL PROCEDURES: .......... 3

1. Decisions Regarding the Presidential Decree That the 

Turkish Constitutional Court Can Give: ............................ 4

2. Supervision of Presidential Decree: ................................... 5

III. AUDIT OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREES BY CONSTITUTIONAL

COURT THROUGH CONSTITUTIONAL NORM AUDIT............ 6

IV. LIMITS OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREES: ..................................... 10

A. GENERAL LIMITS OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREES

AGAINST THE ENTIRE CONSTITUTION.......................... 16

B. GENERAL LIMITS OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREES IN 

FRONT OF THE LAW: AUTHORIZATION RULES IN 

TERMS OF THE SUBJECT: .................................................. 19

C. THE FOUR PRIMARY AND SOLID AUTONOMOUS 

AREAS WHERE THE PRESIDENTIAL DECREE WILL BE 

ISSUED: .................................................................................. 31

D. CONCLUSION:....................................................................... 34

SECOND PART

REGULATORY PROCEDURES OF THE PRESIDENCY OF 

THE UNITED STATES AND TÜRKİYE

ABSTRACT............................................................................................ 37

INTRODUCTION (TÜRKİYE AND USA): .......................................... 38

A. UNITED STATES SYSTEM .................................................. 40

IV Contents

B. EXECUTIVE ORDERS: .........................................................42

C. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE AND THE LAW.........................44

D. EXECUTIVE ORDERS AND THE FEDERAL SUPREME 

COURT:...................................................................................48

E. EXECUTIVE ORDERS AND CONGRESS ...........................52

F. SUPERVISION OF CONGRESS TO THE PRESIDENT IN 

THE USA:................................................................................56

CONCLUSION .......................................................................................60

THIRD PART

CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTIONAL JURISDICTION IN 

THE UNITED STATES COMPARED WITH TÜRKİYE

I. DEVELOPMENT OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS IN USA: ........63

II. AMERICAN DEMOCRACY: ........................................................64

III. US CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTIONAL 

JURISDICTION: .............................................................................66

IV. CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT OF SUPREME COURT: ...71

A. SUPREME COURT'S EVALUATION ON FREEDOM OF 

EXPRESSION: ........................................................................72

B. CHANGE IN RACIAL JURISPRUDENCE OF SUPREME 

COURT:...................................................................................73

1. Judgment of the US Federal Supreme Court (in the first 

instance) of 1896; (separate but equal doctrine): ................73

2. Judgment of the US Supreme Court (second phase), 1938; 

“Color discrimination cannot be made in the Faculty of 

Law”:...................................................................................74

3. The 1954 decision of the US Supreme Court (in the third 

phase); “color-blind doctrine”:............................................74

4. The 1963 decision of the US Supreme Court (in phase four); 

Minority to majority transfer plan:......................................75

a. House of Representatives: .............................................78

b. Senate:............................................................................78

C. POWERS OF THE CONGRESS:............................................79

D. EXECUTIVE IN THE USA: ...................................................82

E. CONSTITUTIONAL JURISDICTION IN THE USA: ...........93

Contents V

1. Generally: ........................................................................... 93

2. Supreme Court:................................................................... 95

F. US PROBLEMS: ................................................................... 101

CONCLUSION: .................................................................................. 103

INDEX.................................................................................................. 109

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................... 115

A. BOOKS: ........................................................................................ 115

B. ARTICLES:................................................................................... 119

C. SUPREME COURT DECISIONS (IN ALFABETICAL

ORDERS):..................................................................................... 123

D. SOURCES OF INTERNET:.......................................................... 124

CURRICULUM VITAE..................................................................... 125


Ansay, Tuğrul and 

Don Wallace Jr

: Introduction to Turkish Law, 3

rd Edition, Kluver Law and Taxation Publishers, 1987, Norwell, USA, ve Olgaç Matbaası, Ankara 1987, ss. I+XV, 

1+279.

Atay, Ender Ethem, (2018) : İdare Hukuku, Ankara: Seçkin Yayınları.

Başgil, Ali Fuat, (1960) : Esas Teşkilat Hukuku, Birinci Cilt:

Türkiye Siyasi Rejimi ve Anayasa 

Prensipleri, 1. Fasikül, İstanbul: Baha 

Matbaası.

Bradley Anthony W./

Ewing, Keith D., (2003)

: Constitutional and Administrative 

Law, 13th Edition, Longman, Malaysia.

Chemerınsky Ervin, (2011) : Constitutional Law: Principles and 

Policies, New York, 2011.

Devlet Personel Başkanlığı 

(2016)

: ABD Kamu Yönetimi ve Kamu Personel Sistemi, Ankara: Devlet Personel 

Başkanlığı Yayını.

Doehring Karl, (2002) : Genel Devlet Kuramı, çev. Ahmet 

Mumcu, 2. Baskı, İstanbul.

Emanuel Steven L., (2011) : Constitutional Law, Twenty-Ninth 

Edition, New York: Published by 

Wolters Kluver Law and Business in 

New York.

116 Selected Bibliography

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : Türk Anayasa Hukuku Tarihi 

(Turkish Constitutional Law History),

Yetkin Publishing House, Ankara, 

2021.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : Yargının Bağımsızlığı ve Tarafsızlığı

(Independency and Impartiality of Judiciary), Yetkin Publishing House, 

Ankara, 2010.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : Türkiye’de Demokrasinin Gelişimi ve 

Avrupa Birliği (Development of Democracy in Turkey and European Union), Beyan Publishing House, Istanbul, 2005.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : The Relationship Between the Ottoman Empire and the United States of 

America, (Istanbul: 2002, Beyan Publishing House).

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : 1999: State, Diplomacy and The 

Struggle of Human for Freedom, (Istanbul: 1999, Filiz Publishing House), 

2nd Edition.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : 1998: The Independence of Jurisdiction at the Turkish Constitutional 

Law, (Ankara, 1998, Publishment of 

The Turkish Ministry of Justice). 

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : Kamu Denetçiliği (Ombudsmanship),

Publication of Yetkin, Ankara- 2011.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : 2019: Anayasa Hukuku (Constitutional Law), 7th Edition, Yetkin Yayınları, Ankara, 2019.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : 2019: Anayasa Yargısı (The Judiciary 

of the Constitution), 3th Edition, Yetkin Yayınları, Ankara, 2019.

Selected Bibliography 117

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : 2019: Hukuka Giriş (Introduction of 

Law), 8th Edition, Yetkin Yayınları, 

Ankara, 2019.

Feyzioğlu, Turhan, (1951) : Kanunların Anayasaya Uygunluğunun 

Kazai Murakabesi, Yabancı Memleketlerde-Türkiye’de, Ankara.

Giovanni Sartori : The Theory of Democracy, Revised, 

New Jersey, by Chatham House Publishers, inc., 1987.

Gözler, Kemal (2018) : Türk Anayasa Hukuku Dersleri (Lectures on Turkish Constitutional Law), 

12th Edition, Ekin, Bursa.

Güven, Kudret : General Priciples of Turkish Law, 

Yetkin Yayınları, Ankara 2016, Fourth Edition, pp. 1+275

Kaboğlu, İbrahim Özden/ 

SALES,Eric, (2018)

: Darbe ve Demokrasi Sarkacında Türk 

Anayasa Hukuku, Çevirmen ve Editör: Dr. Öğretim üyesi İrem Berksoy, 

İstanbul: Legal Yayıncılık A.Ş.

Loewenberg Gerhard, (1971) : Modern Parliaments, Change or Decline? Chicago.

Morrison, Alan B. (General 

Editor) 

: Fundementals of American Law, New 

York University School of Law, 

Oxford University Press, 1998.

Morlan Robert L., (1975) : American Government, Policy and 

Process, Second Edition, USA: Boston.

Nomer, Mert, (2013) : ABD Başkanlık Sisteminde Başkanın 

Yetkileri, İstanbul: XII Levha Yayınları.

Okşar, Mustafa, (2018) : Anayasa Değişiklikleri Çerçevesinde 

Yürütme Erkinin Üstünlüğü, Ankara: 

Yetkin Yayınları.

Özbudun, Ergun, (2017) : Türk Anayasa Hukuku, 17. Baskı, 

Ankara: Yetkin Yayınevi.

118 Selected Bibliography

Redlich Norman/Attanasio, 

John/Goldstein, Joel K., 

(2004)

: Understanding Constitutional Law,

Third Edition, New York: LexisNexis 

Publication.

Rosenfeld Michel and Sajo 

Andras, (2012)

: The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law, Oxford.

Söyler, Yasin, (2018) : Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnameleri, 

Ankara: Seçkin Yayınları.

Teziç, Erdoğan, (2017) : Anayasa Hukuku, 21. Baskı, İstanbul: 

Beta Basım Yayım Dağıtım A.Ş.

Turhan, Mehmet : The Constitutional Court of Turkey,

Publication of Constitutional Court, 

Ankara, 1991.

Turhan, Mehmet : “Anayasamız ve Demokratik Toplum 

Düzeninin Gerekleri”, (The Necessities of Democritical Order of Soceity 

and Our Constitution), Anayasa Yargısı (The Judiciary of the Constitution), Ankara, 1991.

Tunç, Hasan, (1997) : Karşılaştırmalı Anayasa Yargısı (Denetimin Kapsamı ve Organları), Yetkin, Ankara.

Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi 

(2014) (Araştırma Hizmetleri 

Başkanlığı)

: Karşılaştırmalı Hükümet Sistemleri, 

Yarı-Başkanlık Sistemi (Fransa, Polonya ve Rusya Örnekleri), Ankara: 

Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Yayını.

Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi 

(2019) (Araştırma Hizmetleri 

Başkanlığı)

: ABD Kongresinde Yasama, Denetim 

ve Bütçe Süreçleri, Ankara: Türkiye 

Büyük Millet Meclisi Yayını.

Zengin, M. Ali, (2014) : Avrupa İnsan Hakları Sözleşmesi Ekseninde Yargısal Aktivizm Doktrini, 

Ankara, Adalet Yayınevi.

Selected Bibliography 119

B. ARTICLES:

Ardıçoğlu, M. Artuk, (2017) : “Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi”, 

Ankara Barosu Dergisi, Cilt 75, Sayı 

3, Ankara, Ankara Barosu Yayını.

Akçalı, Pınar, (2013) : “Genel Özellikleri, Yararları ve Sakıncaları Işığında Başkanlık Sistemleri”, Yeni Türkiye Dergisi, Yıl 9, Sayı 

51.

Caniklioğlu, Meltem Dikmen, 

(2008)

: “Hukuk Devletinde Siyasi İktidar ve 

Yargının karşılıklı Konumu ve İlişkileri”, Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, Cilt 10, Sayı 1.

Çağlar, Bakır, (1985) : “Anayasa Yargısında Yorum Problemi: Karşılaştırmalı Analizin Katkıları”, Anayasa Yargısı 2, Ankara.

Elgie Robert, (2007) : “Varieties of Semi-Presidentialism 

and Their Impact on Nascent Democracies”, Taiwan Journal of Democracy, Cilt 3, Sayı 2.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “On The Liberal Constitution”, Article, Published by Turkish General Union of Lawyers, (Ankara: 2000), 245-

275.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “Democracy, The Wave of Democratization and Exit Guaranties”, Article, Award to Prof. Dr. Seyfullah Edis, 

9 September University Press, (Izmir: 

2000), 79-91.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “The Problem of Independent Measure Norm or Support Measure Norm in 

the Practice of International Human 

Rights Documents”, Article, Presented at Turkish Constitutional Court, 

(Ankara, April 25–26, 2000), This 

paper published (Ankara, 2000, Turkish Constitutional Court Press, 362–

384).

120 Selected Bibliography

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : 2008: Rights of Persons Deprived of

Their Liberty: The Role of National 

Human Rights Structures Who are 

OPCAT Mechanisms and of Those 

Who are Not”, Arranged by Council 

of Europe Commissioner for Human 

Rights and University of Padua, İtaly 

Padua, 9-10 April 2008.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : 2009: “Gender Equity in Turkey”,

Council of Europe, Agora Building, 

11th Meeting of the Steering Committe on Media and New Communication 

Services (CDMC), Arranged by 

Council of Europe Secretariat General, Directorate General of Human 

Rights and Legal Affairs, Head of the 

Human Rights Development Department, Strasbourg-France, 20-23 October 2009.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : 2009: “Assessment of Ombudsman 

Role Between The Civil Society And 

Authorities”, Conference of Ombudsman, Cultural Dialogue and Human Rights in a Changing Society, 

Together for Promoting Human 

Rights, Arranged by NCHR Egypt 

Ombudsman Office, EC Funded Project, El Amira Conference Room, Nile 

Hilton Hotel, Cairo-Egypt, 17–18 December, 2009.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “Liberty and The Turkish Constitution of 1982”, Uluslararası Avukatlar 

Birliği Tarafından Strasbourg’da Düzenlenen “Uluslararası Hukuk Konferansı”na Sunulan Bildiri; “International Conference of Lawyers”, Strasbourg-France, 5th- 8th of February, 

1999.

Selected Bibliography 121

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “1876 Constitution of Ottoman or the 

Period of Monarchic Modernty 

(1876–1908)” (1876 Anayasası veya 

Monarşik Modernleşme Dönemi 

(1876–1908)”, Türk Tarihi Ansiklopedisi (Encyclopedia of Turkish History), Ankara, 2002, Vol. XIV, 739–

750.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “After the Reorganisation Edict Judicial Arrangements and Dualism in 

Turkish Law” (Tanzimat Fermanı 

Sonrası Hukuki Düzenlemeler ve Hukuk Dualizmi), Türk Tarihi Ansiklopedisi (Encyclopedia of Turkish History) , Ankara, 2002, Vol. XIV, 727–

738.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “Restriction of Basic Rights and Freedoms at the context of 2001 Amendement of Turkish Constitution of 

1982 (Article 13)”, “2001 Anayasa 

Değişikliği Bağlamında Temel Hak ve 

Özgürlüklerin Sınırlanması (AY., md. 

13)”, International Symposium, Presented at Turkish Constitutional Court, (Antalya, April 25-26, 2002), This 

paper published (Ankara, 2002, Turkish Constitutional Court Press).

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : Assessation on Recruiting System According to the Liberty”, International 

Symposium, Organized by Seljuk 

University, (Konya, April 7-9, 1999), 

This paper published (Konya, 1999, 

Seljuk University Press).

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “The Turkish Constitution of 1982”,

International Conference of Lawyers, 

(Strasbourg-France, February 5th -

8th, 1999), Organized by International 

Union of Lawyers.

122 Selected Bibliography

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “Human Rights and Judiciary Security”, International Symposium on 

Judiciary Security, (Antalya, July 11–

13, 1997), This paper published 

(Konya, 1998, Seljuk University 

Press, Vol. VI, 113–123).

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “The Right of Opposition in the Ottoman Empire”, International Symposium on Human Rights, (Istanbul, December 10–11, 1994), Published (Istanbul, 1995, 159–182).

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “The role of American Protestans at 

the Birth of The Armenian Problem”, 

Organized by ASAM (Avrasya Stratejik Araştırmalar Merkezi: The Central 

of Stratejical Researces of Avrasia), 

Ermeni Araştırmaları Merkezi (The 

Central of Armenian Researces), Ankara, 20-21 April 2002).

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : “The Organization of European Security and Cooperation in the Context of 

Security”, Organized by Firat University, (Elaziğ, October 17-19, 2001); 

this article published by Firat University, Elazig: 2001.

Fendoglu, Hasan Tahsin : 2000: “Terrorism According to the 

International Documents”, International Symposium, Organized by Firat 

University, (Elaziğ, March 27–29, 

2000), this paper published (Elazığ, 

2000, Firat University Press, 757–

769).

Forte David F., “Pocket Veto” 

(Art. I, Sect 7, Cl. 2)

: The Heritage Guide to the Constitution, Editors: Edwin Meese, Matthew 

Spalding, David Forte, Published in 

the U.S by Regnery Publishing Inc. 

Washington.

Selected Bibliography 123

Gerhardt, Michael J., “Trial of 

Impeachment”, (Art. II, Sect. 

4)

: The Heritage Guide to the Constitutuion, Editors: Edwin Meese, Matthew Spalding, David Forte, Published 

in the U.S by Regnery Publishing Inc. 

Washington.

Kıratlı, Metin, (1982) : “Anayasa Mahkemeleri ve Siyasal 

Polemikler”, AYM, 55 Yıl 55 Makale.

Lawson Gary, (2005) : “Due Process Clause”, The Heritage 

Guide to the Constitution, Editors: 

Edwin Meese, Matthew Spalding, 

David Forte, Published in the U.S by 

Regnery Publishing Inc. Washington.

Özbudun, Ergun, (2013) : “Hükümet Sistemi Tartışmaları”, Yeni Türkiye, Yıl 9, Sayı 51.

Yüksel, Metin, (2012) : “Anayasal Demokrasi İçinde Anayasa 

Mahkemesi’nin Konumu”, SDÜ Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi, Cilt 2, Sayı 1.

C. SUPREME COURT DECISIONS 

(IN ALFABETICAL ORDERS):

Armstrong v. US, 80 USA 154 (1871).

Baker v. Carr, 369 U. S. 186 (1962).

Chamber of Commerce v. Reich (1995).

Dames and More v. Regan 453 US 657 (1981).

Hamdi v. Rusfeld (2004). 

Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006). 

Korematsu v. USA, 323 US 214 (1944). 

Panama Refining Co. V. Ryan (1935).

Missisippi v. Johnson, 71 US 475 (1866).

Medellin v. Texas, 552 US 491 (2008).

Nixon v. US, 506 U. S. 224 (1993).

Schechter Poultry Corp v. United States (1935).

124 Selected Bibliography

US v. Klein (60 US 128).

The Pocket Veto Case, 279 U. S. 655 (1929).Youngstown Sheet and Tube 

Co. v. Sawyer, 343 US 579 (1952).

D. SOURCES OF INTERNET: 

Chu Vivian S. and Garvey Todd, (2014). “Executive Orders: Issuance, 

Modification and Revocation”, Congressional Researh Service (CRS), ss. 

1-10. https://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/key_workplace/1262/ (Erişim 

tarihi: 22.12.2018).

Contrubis John, (1999). “Executive Orders and Proclamations”, CRS Report for Congress, ss.1-26. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/95-772.pdf (erişim 

tarihi: 22.12.2018).

Covington Megan, (2012). “Executive Legislation and the Expansion of 

Presidential Power”, Humanities and Social Science, Spring 2012, Cilt 8, 

ss. 1-8. https://ejournals.library.vanderbilt.edu/index.php/vurj/article/

view/3556 (erişim tarihi: 22.12.2018).

Çolak Çağrı D., (2017). “Cumhurbaşkanlığı Kararnamesi Yetkisinin 

Amerikan Sistemi Üzerinden Karşılaştırmalı Analizi”, Stratejik Public 

Management Journal, Vol. 3, Special Issue, ss. 51-65. http://dergipark.

gov.tr/download/article-file/395026 (erişim tarihi: 22.12.2018).

Fleishman, Joel L. and Aufses Arthur H. (1976). “Law and Orders: The 

Problem of Presidential Legislation”, Law and Contemporary Problems, 

Cilt 40, Sayı 3, ss. 1-45. https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcon

tent.cgi?article (erişim tarihi: 22.12.2018).

http://www.law.cornell.du/wex/political_question_doctrine (erişim tarihi: 

1.12.2014).

http://scholarship.law.georgetown.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article (erişim 

tarihi: 1.12.2014).

http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog, (erişim tarihi: 1.12.2014). 

Neil, Benjamin A. (ty). “Presidential Executive Orders: Laws Without 

Legislation”, Journal of Criminal Justice Research, http://www.aabri.

com/manuscripts (Erişim tarihi: 22.12.2018). 

Trump, Donald John (2018). “Executive Orders”, Wikisource, The Free 

Online Library, (https:/en.wikisource.org/wiki/Author:Donald_John_

Trump/Executive_Orders), ss. 1-5, (erişim tarihi: 22.12.2018).

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