Uluslararası Hukukta İnsani Müdahale Doktrini ve Birleşmiş Milletlerde Paylaşımlı Yetki Mekanizması

Yayınevi: Yetkin Yayınları
Yazar: Şahin Eray KIRDIM
ISBN: 9786050509144
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Kitap Künyesi
Yazar Şahin Eray KIRDIM
Baskı Tarihi 2021/08
Baskı Sayısı 1
Boyut 16x24 cm (Standart Kitap Boyu)
Cilt Karton kapak
Sayfa Sayısı 160

Bu çalışma, 1416 sayılı kanun kapsamında Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı burslu öğrencisi olarak gittiğim Case Western Reserve Üniversitesi Hu-kuk Fakültesi’nde (Cleveland, OH, ABD) gerçekleştirdiğim doktora te-zimin Türkçeye çevrilmiş ve kısmen güncellenmiş halidir. Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı bursunu kazandığım dönemde, tüm Orta Doğu’da Arap Baharı olarak adlandırılan sürecin etkileri hâlâ canlıydı. Halk ayaklanmaları, sonsuza kadar gücü ellerinde tutacaklarını düşünen eski diktatörlüklere meydan okumaktaydı. Buna karşın, bazı ülkelerde kısmi başarılar elde edilse de Libya ve Suriye gibi halk ayaklanmalarının oldukça sert ön-lemlerle karşılaştığı ülkeler de vardı.

Dikkat çekici bir husus, uluslararası bir askeri koalisyonun – hem de Birleşmiş Milletler Güvenlik Konseyi’nin almış olduğu kararlar son-rasında – Muammer Kaddafi yönetiminin aşırılıklarına bir karşılık olarak Libya’da çok kısa sürede askeri bir operasyon gerçekleştirmiş olmasıydı. Operasyonun başarıya ulaşması ve Kaddafi’nin öldürülmesi sonrası, hemen herkes insan haklarının şampiyonluğunu ilan etmeye hazırdı. Ancak çok kısa bir süre sonra uluslararası ilişkilerdeki klasik güç tahte-revallisi dengesini bulmuştu. Halk ayaklanmalarının bastırılması için muhtemelen Kaddafi yönetiminden daha sert önlemler alan Suriye reji-mine karşı, Güvenlik Konseyi bu kez kendini bir çıkmazda bularak ha-reketsiz kalmıştı. Ağır insan hakları ihlalleri ve sınır aşan yoğun göç dal-gasına rağmen Güvenlik Konseyi, daimî üyeleri arasındaki çıkar çatış-maları nedeniyle askeri bir müdahale gerçekleştirilmesi konusunda ka-rarlar alamamıştı.

Yoğun göç dalgaları ve istikrarız bir yönetim nedeniyle Suriye’de sayıları ve yoğunlukları her geçen gün artan terör aktiviteleri nedeniyle krizden Türkiye’nin de ciddi şekilde etkilenmesi, böyle bir müdahalenin neden gerçekleştirilemediği ve hem uluslararası hukuku ihlal etmeden hem de uluslararası ilişkilerin dengesini bozmadan nasıl gerçekleştirile-bileceği sorusunu daha fazla sorgulamama neden olmuştu. Aslında ilk sorunun cevabı kanaatimce oldukça açıktı, zira mesele dönüp dolaşıp ulusal çıkar mefhumunda toplanmaktaydı. Ancak ikinci soru için daha fazla düşünmek, araştırmak, okumak, yorumlamak ve yazmak gereki-yordu.

Bu nedenlerle doktora tezimin konusunu daha öngörülebilir bir in-sani müdahale sisteminin mümkün olup olmadığı sorusuna adadım. Hemen burada belirtilmelidir ki insan hakları kavramı akıllara hemen idealist çağrışımlar getirse de eldeki çalışma saf bir idealist düşünce ve ağır bir insan hakları romantizminden hareket etmemektedir. Çalışmanın ortaya koyduğu daha iyi bir insani müdahale mekanizması önerisi, ulus-lararası sistemin realitelerini de dikkate almaktadır. Dahası, her ne kadar normal şartlarda şiddetli şekilde karşı olsam da bu çalışma özelinde mevcut Birleşmiş Milletler sistemi içerisindeki veto yetkisinin kaldırıl-ması gibi bir önerim bile bulunmamaktadır. Hatta bir adım daha ileri giderek söylenebilir ki Birleşmiş Milletler Şartı’nın değiştirilmesi dahi teklif edilmemektedir. Dolayısıyla, vaat edilen bu “daha iyi insani mü-dahale mekanizması” nasıl olacak da mümkün olacak sorusu derhal okuyucunun aklına gelecektir. İşte eldeki çalışmada bu sorunun yanıtı aranmaktadır.

Burada son bir not olarak eklemek gerekir ki çalışma hem Ameri-kan faydacılığı hem de Amerikan akademik yazım tekniklerinin tipik örneklerini taşımaktadır. Bunların başında ise ifade edilmek istenen dü-şüncenin mümkün olan en az ve sade kelimeyle okuyucuya aktarılması gelmektedir. Türkiye’deki lisans eğitimim sırasında okuduğum Türkçe kitaplar ve makaleler ile incelediğim bazı Türkçe tezler, son derece uzun cümleler ve oldukça ağdalı bir dil kullanmaktaydı. Bunları lisans öğren-cisi/mezunu olanlar bile anlamakta zorlanmaktaydı. Ben de muhtemelen bu gelenek nedeniyle, doktora tezimin yazım aşamasının ilk dönemle-rinde, ana konudan uzak ve sürekli ikincil meseleler etrafında dönen tartışmalar üzerine odaklanmakta ve bundan ötürü de hedefe bir türlü varamamaktaydım. Örneğin Koruma Sorumluluğu Doktrini benim te-zimde son derece sınırlı bir şekilde – hatta sadece bir argümanıma des-tek sağlamak amacıyla – ele alınmasına rağmen, bu doktrin üzerine faz-ladan bir bölüm bile yazmış ve okumaları için tezimi her iki danışmanı-ma da teslim etmiştim.

Danışmanlarımın geri dönüşleri son derece faydalı olmakla beraber, özellikle biri yukarıda bahsettiğim Amerikan faydacılığı ve Amerikan akademik yazım tekniğin özünü görmem açısından çarpıcıydı. Gönder-diğim metni okuyan doktora tez ikinci danışmanım Profesör Lewis Katz hemen bir randevu verdi. Görüşmeye gittiğimde ise cümlelerimin gere-ğinden fazla uzun olduğunu ve takip etmekte zorlandığını söyledi. “Dünyanın yuvarlak olduğunu anlatmak için üç kelimeden fazlasına ihtiyaç duyuyorsan, dünyanın düz olduğunu söylemeni tercih ederim. En azından gülmek için bir sebebim olur” diyen Profesör Katz, tezimin sadeleştirilmesinde bana aydınlık bir yol göstermişti.

Dolayısıyla, eldeki çalışma ana argüman ve alt argümanlarının ço-ğunu bu sadelik içerisinde okuyucuya sunmaktadır. Bu itibarla, her ne kadar akademik bir çalışma olsa da lisans öğrencileri de dâhil olmak üzere her seviyeden okuyucunun kolaylıkla anlayabileceği bir eser orta-ya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Tezin tarafımdan Türkçe’ye çevrilmesi sıra-sında da bu hassasiyet gözetilmiştir.  Ayrıca not edilmelidir ki eldeki çalışma, üniversitelerin çeşitli bölümlerinde okutulan Uluslararası Kamu Hukuku (veya Devletler Umumi Hukuku), Uluslararası Örgütler Hukuku ve/veya Uluslararası Örgütler gibi derslerde de yardımcı kitap olarak kullanılabilecek niteliktedir.

Bu çalışmaya temel teşkil eden tezin oluşumunu mümkün kılan bir-kaç kurum ve kişi bulunmaktadır. Her şeyden önce Amerika Birleşik Devletleri’ndeki eğitimim sırasında finansal olarak beni destekleyen ülkeme sonsuz şekilde minnettarım. Türk devleti burslusu rozetini ya-kamda her daim gurur ve özveriyle taşıdım. Bunun yanında, tez danış-manlarım Robert N. Strassfeld ve Lewis Katz’in muazzam katkıları için de müteşekkirim. Son olarak, bana inanmayı hiçbir zaman bırakmayan annem Nazan Kırdım ve bir yerlerden beni hâlâ izlemekte olan babam Cumhur Kırdım’ın haklarını ödeyemem.


İÇİNDEKİLER

İÇİNDEKİLER 7

SUNUŞ 11


BİRİNCİ BÖLÜM

BAŞLANGIÇ


I. GİRİŞ 15

II. ÇALIŞMANIN HEDEFLERİ 18

III. METODOLOJİ, ÇALIŞMA BOYUNCA KULLANILAN

ÖNEMLİ KAVRAMLAR VE TEK TARAFLI İNSANİ

MÜDAHALENİN HUKUKA AYKIRILIĞI 18

IV. BÖLÜM PLANLARI 23


İKİNCİ BÖLÜM

İNSANİ MÜDAHALE DOKTRİNİ VE

ULUSLARARASI HUKUKA UYGUNLUĞU


I. DEVLET EGEMENLİĞİ VE MÜDAHALE ETMEME

İLKESİNİN TARİHSEL GELİŞİMİ 36

II. İKİNCİ DÜNYA SAVAŞINA KADAR İNSANİ MÜDAHALE

TEORİSİ: DOKTRİNDE İHTİLAF 41

III. BM SİSTEMİ SONRASI İNSANİ MÜDAHALENİN

HUKUKİLİĞİ ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME 52

A. İnsan Hakları Özelinde Devletlerin Ulusal Yetki Alanının

Kapsamı ve İçeriği 55

B. İnsani Müdahale ve Uluslararası Hukuk 64

1. BM Şartı ve Yorumlayıcı Bir İnsani Müdahale Normu 66

a. Uluslararası Adalet Divanı’nın İnsani Müdahalenin

Hukukiliğine İlişkin Yorumu 69

b. Genel Kurul’un İnsani Müdahalenin Hukukiliğine

İlişkin Yorumu 71

c. Güvenlik Konseyi’nin İnsani Müdahalenin

Hukukiliğine İlişkin Yorumu 72

i. Irak’ın Kürtlere Yönelik Muamelesi Örneği

(1991) 73

ii. Somali’deki İnsani Kriz ve Kuvvet Kullanımı

(1992-1993) 76

iii. Haiti’deki Sözde Demokrasi Müdahalesi

(1994-1995) 79

iv. Ruanda: Hutular Tutsilere Karşı (1994-95) 82

v. NATO’nun Bosna-Hersek Müdahalesi (1995) 84

vi. Doğu Timor Müdahalesi (1999) 86

vii. Avrupa Birliği’nin Demokratik Kongo

Cumhuriyeti Müdahalesi (2003) 87

viii. Libya: İnsani Müdahalede Yeni Bir Çağ mı?

(2011) 87

ix. Vakaların Değerlendirilmesi 90

IV. BÖLÜM DEĞERLENDİRMESİ 91


 

ÜÇÜNCÜ BÖLÜM

İNSANİ MÜDAHALE SİSTEMİNİ

REFORM ETME ÇABALARI


I. REFORM ÇABALARI 93

A. Kitlesel Vahşet Bağlamında İstenmeyen Veto Gücü 94

B. Birincil Sorumluluğun Bölgesel Kuruluşlara Devri 98

C. İnsani Müdahaleler İçin Kozmopolit Bir Daimî Birleşmiş

Milletler Gücü 102

II. UYGUN OTORİTE 104

A. İnsani Müdahalelerde Uygun Otorite Kriterleri 104

B. Kim Karar Vermeli? 105

1. Uygun Otorite Güvenlik Konseyi Midir? 107

2. Uygun Otorite Güvenlik Konseyi Değil Midir? 108

III. BÖLÜM DEĞERLENDİRMESİ 109


 

DÖRDÜNCÜ BÖLÜM

GÜVENLİK KONSEYİNDEKİ

KARMA MOTİVASYONLAR SORUNU VE

İNSANİ MÜDAHALE ÜZERİNE BİR KONTROL VE

DENGE MEKANİZMASI


I. KARMA MOTİVASYONLAR SORUNU 112

A. Ruanda’da Soykırım ve Eylemsizlik 113

B. Kosova’da NATO Müdahalesi: Meşruluk vs Hukukilik 116

C. Vakaların Değerlendirilmesi 120

II. BİRLEŞMİŞ MİLLETLER BÜNYESİNDE İNSANİ

MÜDAHALEYE İLİŞKİN BİR KONTROL VE DENGE

MEKANİZMASI 121

A. Bağımsız Bir BM Uzmanlık Kuruluşu 121

B. Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Kurulu 125

C. Güvenlik Konseyi 130

IV. BÖLÜM DEĞERLENDİRMESİ 131


BEŞİNCİ BÖLÜM

SONUÇ


BİBLİYOGRAFYA 139


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